Spanning Canada, the United States, and Mexico, North America contains two populations of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The smaller “western” population overwinters in groves along the California coast and breeds west of the Rocky Mountains, while the much larger “eastern” population breeds east of the Rocky Mountains and overwinters in Oyamel fir forests in central Mexico. Both populations have declined in the last 20 to 30 years, leading to a formal petition in 2014 to list the species as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) and a recommendation in 2016 for listing as endangered under the Canadian Species at Risk act.
|Title||Editorial: North American monarch butterfly ecology and conservation|
|Authors||James E. Diffendorfer, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ryan G. Drum, Cheryl Schultz|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Frontiers in Ecology and Conservation|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Geosciences and Environmental Change Science Center; Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center|