Avian influenza viruses can pose serious risks to agricultural production, human health, and wildlife. An understanding of viruses in wild reservoir species across time and space is important to informing surveillance programs, risk models, and potential population impacts for vulnerable species. Although it is recognized that influenza A virus prevalence peaks in reservoir waterfowl in late summer through autumn, temporal and spatial variation across species has not been fully characterized. We combined two large influenza databases for North America and applied spatiotemporal models to explore patterns in prevalence throughout the annual cycle and across the continental United States for 30 waterfowl species. Peaks in prevalence in late summer through autumn were pronounced for dabbling ducks in the genera Anas and Spatula, but not Mareca. Spatially, areas of high prevalence appeared to be related to regional duck density, with highest predicted prevalence found across the upper Midwest during early fall, though further study is needed. We documented elevated prevalence in late winter and early spring, particularly in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variation in prevalence outside autumn staging areas may also represent a dynamic parameter to be considered in IAV ecology and associated risks.
|Title||Spatiotemporal changes in influenza A virus prevalence among wild waterfowl inhabiting the continental United States throughout the annual cycle|
|Authors||Cody M. Kent, Andrew M. Ramey, Josh T. Ackerman, Justin Bahl, Sarah N. Bevins, Andrew S. Bowman, Walter Boyce, Carol Cardona, Michael L. Casazza, Troy D. Cline, Susan E. W. De La Cruz, Jeffrey S. Hall, Nichola J. Hill, Hon S. Ip, Scott Krauss, Jennifer M. Mullinax, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Magdalena Plancarte, Rebecca L. Poulson, Jonathan A. Runstadler, Richard D. Slemons, David E. Stallknecht, Jeffery D. Sullivan, John Y. Takekawa, Richard J. Webby, Robert G. Webster, Diann J. Prosser|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Scientific Reports|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||National Wildlife Health Center; Western Ecological Research Center; Eastern Ecological Science Center|