Science and Products
Lethal infection of wild raptors with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 and H5N2 viruses in the USA, 2014–15
An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) led to heavy losses of poultry in commercial farms in North America in 2014–15. Enhanced surveillance by virologists and pathologists at the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center and its partners resulted in the identification of lethal infections with clade 188.8.131.52 subgroup...Knowles, Susan N.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Ip, Hon S.
Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction...Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.
Experimental infection of common eider ducklings with Wellfleet Bay virus, a newly characterized orthomyxovirus
Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV), a novel orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus, was first isolated in 2006 from carcasses of common eider (Somateria mollissima) during a mortality event in Wellfleet Bay (Barnstable County, Massachusetts, USA) and has since been repeatedly isolated during recurrent mortality events in this location. Hepatic,...Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Ip, Hon S.; Ballmann, Anne; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Allison, Andrew B.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Ellis, Julie C.; Cook, Robert; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Dwyer, Chris P.
Natural infections with Pigeon Paramyxovirus-1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the USA: Data
We reviewed pathological findings and to a lesser extent epidemiological data from 70 free-ranging columbiforms naturally infected with Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) from 25 different PPMV-1 mortality events in columbiforms in the USA. In a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks, we carried out immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1...Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Lankton, Julia S.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn
Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States
Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia...Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.
Identification of two novel reassortant avian influenza a (H5N6) viruses in whooper swans in Korea, 2016
BackgroundOn November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and...Jeong, Jipseol; Woo, Chanjin; Ip, Hon S.; An, Injung; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kwanghee; Jo, Seong-Deok ; Son, Kidong ; Lee, Saemi; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun ; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeonghwa; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Jheong, Weonhwa
Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8
Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 184.108.40.206) virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014–2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-...Ip, Hon S.
Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat
Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious...Ip, Hon S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David S.
H9N2 influenza A virus isolated from a Greater White-fronted wild goose (Anser albifrons) in Alaska has a mutation in the PB2 gene, which is associated with pathogenicity in human pandemic 2009 H1N1
We report here the genomic sequence of an H9N2 influenza A virus [A/greater white-fronted goose/Alaska/81081/2008 (H9N2)]. This virus shares ≥99.8% identity with a previously reported virus. Both strains contain a G590S mutation in the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) gene, which is a pathogenicity marker in the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus when combined with...Reeves, Andrew B.; Ip, Hon S.
U.S. Geological Survey science strategy for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wildlife and the environment (2016–2020)
IntroductionThrough the Science Strategy for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Wildlife and the Environment, the USGS will assess avian influenza (AI) dynamics in an ecological context to inform decisions made by resource managers and policymakers from the local to national level. Through collection of unbiased scientific information on...Harris, M. Camille; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; White, C. LeAnn; Miles, A. Keith; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Brand, Christopher J.; Cronin, James P.; De La Cruz, Susan; Densmore, Christine L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Flint, Paul L.; Guala, Gerald F.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Ip, Hon S.; Katz, Rachel A.; Laurent, Kevin W.; Miller, Mark P.; Munn, Mark D.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Richards, Kevin D.; Russell, Robin E.; Stokdyk, Joel P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, Daniel P.
Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States
A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 220.127.116.11 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway...Bevins, S.N.; Dusek, Robert J.; White, C. LeAnn; Gidlewski, Thomas; Bodenstein, B.; Mansfield, Kristin G.; DeBruyn, Paul; Kraege, Donald K.; Rowan, E.L.; Gillin, Colin; Thomas, B.; Chandler, S.; Baroch, J.; Schmit, B.; Grady, M. J.; Miller, R. S.; Drew, M.L.; Stopak, S.; Zscheile, B.; Bennett, J.; Sengl, J.; Brady, Caroline; Ip, Hon S.; Spackman, Erica; Killian, M. L.; Kim Torchetti, Mia ; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, T.J.
Experimental challenge of a peridomestic avian species, European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), with novel Influenza A H7N9 virus from China
In 2013 a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus was isolated from several critically ill patients in China, and infection with this virus has since caused more than 200 human deaths. Live poultry markets are the likely locations of virus exposure to humans. Peridomestic avian species also may play important roles in the transmission and maintenance of...Hall, Jeffrey S.; Ip, Hon S.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.