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Methods

The reflected light waves that satellite sensors detect coming from vegetation on the Earth's surface can be altered or blocked by a variety of phenomena, including aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere as well as changing illumination patterns and the angle at which the satellite views the ground at any given time. These phenomena introduce "noise" into raw satellite data.

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Validation

Documenting the effectiveness of the phenology metrics is difficult given the current scarcity of ground verification data at the appropriate scale (i.e., vegetation-canopy phenology). However, current efforts by the National Phenology Network to build and organize ground observation databases will go far toward addressing these shortcomings. In the meantime, two examples of coincident ground...
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Validation

Documenting the effectiveness of the phenology metrics is difficult given the current scarcity of ground verification data at the appropriate scale (i.e., vegetation-canopy phenology). However, current efforts by the National Phenology Network to build and organize ground observation databases will go far toward addressing these shortcomings. In the meantime, two examples of coincident ground...
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Methods for Deriving Metrics

Phenological metrics can be derived from satellite data in several ways. Some researchers use complex mathematical models. Others employ threshold-based approaches that use either relative or pre-defined (global) reference values at which vegetative activity is assumed to begin. For example, seasonal midpoint NDVI (SMN) is a threshold-based approach that uses relative reference values to derive...
link

Methods for Deriving Metrics

Phenological metrics can be derived from satellite data in several ways. Some researchers use complex mathematical models. Others employ threshold-based approaches that use either relative or pre-defined (global) reference values at which vegetative activity is assumed to begin. For example, seasonal midpoint NDVI (SMN) is a threshold-based approach that uses relative reference values to derive...
Learn More

Challenges in Deriving Phenological Metrics

Regardless of the method used, it is difficult to create algorithms sufficiently robust to derive phenological metrics from certain types of real time-series NDVI curves (as opposed to modeled or simulated data). For example, in desert shrublands (see below), time series NDVI shows little seasonal amplitude. Ideally, algorithms should be able to identify these regions and assign them a value such...
link

Challenges in Deriving Phenological Metrics

Regardless of the method used, it is difficult to create algorithms sufficiently robust to derive phenological metrics from certain types of real time-series NDVI curves (as opposed to modeled or simulated data). For example, in desert shrublands (see below), time series NDVI shows little seasonal amplitude. Ideally, algorithms should be able to identify these regions and assign them a value such...
Learn More

Deriving Phenological Metrics from NDVI

Plotting time-series NDVI data produces a temporal curve that summarizes the various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season. Such curves can be analyzed to extract key phenological variables, or metrics, about a particular season, such as the start of the growing season (SOS), peak of the season (POS), and end of the season (EOS). These characteristics may not...
link

Deriving Phenological Metrics from NDVI

Plotting time-series NDVI data produces a temporal curve that summarizes the various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season. Such curves can be analyzed to extract key phenological variables, or metrics, about a particular season, such as the start of the growing season (SOS), peak of the season (POS), and end of the season (EOS). These characteristics may not...
Learn More

Data Smoothing - Reducing the "Noise" in NDVI

The reflected light waves that satellite sensors detect coming from vegetation on the Earth's surface can be altered or blocked by a variety of phenomena, including aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere as well as changing illumination patterns and the angle at which the satellite views the ground at any given time. These phenomena introduce "noise" into raw satellite data. To address this problem...
link

Data Smoothing - Reducing the "Noise" in NDVI

The reflected light waves that satellite sensors detect coming from vegetation on the Earth's surface can be altered or blocked by a variety of phenomena, including aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere as well as changing illumination patterns and the angle at which the satellite views the ground at any given time. These phenomena introduce "noise" into raw satellite data. To address this problem...
Learn More