Allen M Shapiro, Ph.D.

Groundwater Flow and Chemical Transport in Fractured Rock and Karst Aquifers

Vulnerability of Shallow Fractured Rock Aquifers

Biography

Dr. Allen Shapiro is a Senior Research Hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). He is a member of the Water Cycle Branch in the Earth System Processes Division (ESPD) of the Water Mission Area (WMA). Dr. Shapiro conducts research on groundwater flow and chemical transport in complex geologic environments, including fractured rock and karst aquifers. Dr. Shapiro’s research has focused on the development of field techniques and equipment, and methods of integrating and interpreting geologic, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical information in the characterization of fractured rock aquifers. Dr. Shapiro has described fundamental processes of ground water flow and chemical transport that are unique to geologic environments characterized by significant heterogeneity, including the effects of diffusion of constituents between mobile water in fractures and immobile water in the intrinsic rock porosity.  He has also investigated the effect of scale on the hydraulic and transport properties of fractured rock through carefully designed in situ testing,  monitoring, and modeling investigations conducted over physical dimensions of meters to kilometers.  Dr. Shapiro is currently active in the characterization and remediation of various contaminants in fractured rock, including groundwater contamination by Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs).

Dr. Shapiro’s research is of importance to many federal agencies. The Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) have funded Dr. Shapiro’s research on the fate, transport, and remediation of DNAPLs in fractured rock aquifers. Dr. Shapiro has also been a frequent advisor to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on issues related to the characterization and remediation of contaminants in fractured rock aquifers at Superfund sites, and he has prepared and delivered training to EPA Remedial Project Managers on site characterization, monitoring, modeling, and remediation in fractured rock aquifers. Dr. Shapiro’s research has been applied in the areas of geotechnical engineering, which have included the characterization and modeling of groundwater migration into the underground tunnels of the Washington, DC Metro, and his research has also been of significance in groundwater supply and the design of underground facilities for the isolation of anthropogenic wastes.

Dr. Shapiro is a graduate of Princeton University with a Ph.D. in Civil and Geological Engineering. Prior to joining the USGS, Dr. Shapiro conducted hydrologic research at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel. He has been an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University. Dr. Shapiro has patented equipment for conducting hydraulic tests and collecting groundwater samples for geochemical analyses in fractured rock aquifers, and he has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Shapiro has served as an Associate Editor of Journal of Hydrology and the journal Ground Water. Dr. Shapiro is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, and in 2004, the National Ground Water Association selected Dr. Shapiro as the Distinguished Darcy Lecturer, for which he lectured on his research, both nationally and internationally, at over 50 universities and research institutes. Dr. Shapiro has also served on National Research Council panels that have produced extensive reports on key engineering and scientiric issues facing the Nation.     
 

Selected Publications

Shapiro, A.M., Lorah, M.M., Imbrigiotta, T.E., and Goode, D.J., 2019, Concentrations of chlorinated ethene compounds in rock core collected from boreholes 83BR, 84BR, 85BR, 86BR, 87BR, 88BR, and 89BR in the mudstone underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7P55MD8.

Shapiro, A. M. and Brenneis, R. J. 2018. Variability of organic carbon content and the retention and release of trichloroethene in the rock matrix of a mudstone aquifer. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 217: 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2018.09.001.

Shapiro, A. M. and Brenneis, R. J. 2018. Organic and total carbon analyses of rock core collected from boreholes 83BR, 84BR, 85BR, 86BR, 87BR, 88BR, and 89BR in the mudstone underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey. U.S. Geological Survey data release,  https://doi.org/10.5066/F75719Z7.

Shapiro, A. M. 2018. A finite-difference algorithm used to simulate one dimensional diffusion and adsorption of trichloroethene in a rock matrix. U.S. Geological Survey data release,  https://doi.org/10.5066/P963WPSO.

Tiedeman, C. R., Shapiro, A. M., Hsieh, P. A., Imbrigiotta, T. E., Goode, D. J., Lacombe, P. J., DeFlaun, M. F., Drew, S. R., Johnson, C. D., Williams, J. H. and Curtis, G. P. 2018. Bioremediation in Fractured Rock: 1. Modeling to Inform Design, Monitoring, and Expectations. Groundwater 56(2): 300-316. 10.1111/gwat.12585.

Shapiro, A. M., Tiedeman, C. R., Imbrigiotta, T. E., Goode, D. J., Hsieh, P. A., Lacombe, P. J., DeFlaun, M. F., Drew, S. R. and Curtis, G. P. 2018. Bioremediation in Fractured Rock: 2. Mobilization of Chloroethene Compounds from the Rock Matrix. Groundwater 56(2): 317-336. 10.1111/gwat.12586.

Imbrigiotta, T. E., Shapiro, A. M., Goode, D. J. and Tiedeman, C. R. 2017. Biogeochemical analyses of water samples collected in the mudstone aquifer underlying the Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ (2008-2013). U.S. Geological Survey data release,  https://doi.org/10.5066/F7N877ZC.

Tiedeman, C. R., Hsieh, P. A. and Shapiro, A. M. 2017. MODFLOW-2005 and MT3DMS models used to design and evaluate a bioremediation experiment at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ. U.S. Geological Survey data release. http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F71J97XV.

Shapiro, A. M., Evans, C. E. and Hayes, E. C. 2017. Porosity and pore size distribution in a sedimentary rock: Implications for the distribution of chlorinated solvents. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 203: 70-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2017.06.006.

Shapiro, A. M. and Evans, C. E. 2017. Data from mercury intrusion porosimetry conducted on samples of a mudstone underlying the Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey. U.S. Geological Survey data release,  https://doi.org/10.5066/F7GX48RZ.

Shapiro, A. M. and Hayes, E. C. 2017. Lithologic characterization of cores from boreholes 83BR-89BR collected from the mudstone aquifer underlying the Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey. U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F70Z71GM.

Robinson, J., Slater, L., Johnson, T., Shapiro, A., Tiedeman, C., Ntarlagiannis, D., Johnson, C., Day-Lewis, F., Lacomber, P., Imgrigiotta, T., and Lane, J., 2016, Imaging pathways in fractured rock using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography, Groundwater, doi: 10.1111/gwat.12356.

Shapiro, A. M., Ladderud, J. A., and Yager, R. M., 2015, Interpretation of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured rock aquifer over increasingly larger length dimensions, Hydrogeology Journal, v. 23, p. 1319-1339. DOI 10.1007/s10040-015-1285-7. [Link]

National Research Council, 2015, Chracterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 244 p. [Link]

Révész, Kinga M.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Goode, Daniel J.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Lancombe, Pierre J.; Busenberg, Eurybiades, 2014. Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and 2HH2O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 156, p. 62-77. [Link]

National Research Council, 2013, Alternatives for Managing the Nation’s Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 320p. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., 2011, The challenge of interpreting environmental tracer concentrations in fractured rock and carbonate aquifers:Hydrogeology Journal, v. 19, no. 1, p. 9-12, DOI 10.1007/s10040-010-0678-x. [Link]

Wellman, T.P., Shapiro, A.M., and Hill, M.C., 2009, Effects of Simplifying Fracture Network Representation on Inert Chemical Migration in Fracture-Controlled Aquifers, Water Resources Research, v. 45, W01416, doi:10.1029/2008WR007025. [Link]

Gebrekristos, R.A., Shapiro, A.M., and Usher, B.H., 2008, In situ estimation of the effective chemical diffusion coefficient of a rock matrix in a fractured aquifer: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 16, no. 4, p. 629-639. DOI: 0.1007/s10040-007-0255-0. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., and Metge, D.W., 2008, Pathogen and Chemical Transport in the Karst Limestone of the Biscayne Aquifer: 2. Chemical Retention from Diffusion and Slow Advection , Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W08430, doi:10.1029/2007WR006059. [Link]

Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., Metge, D.W., and Wacker, M.A., 2008, Pathogen and Chemical Transport in the Karst Limestone of the Biscayne Aquifer: 1. Revised Conceptualization of Groundwater Flow: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W08429, doi:10.1029/2007WR006058. [Link]

Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Osborn, C.L., Ryan, J.N., Cunningham, K.J., and Landkamer, L., 2008, Pathogen and Chemical Transport in the Karst Limestone of the Biscayne Aquifer: 3. Use of Microspheres to Estimate the Transport Potential of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W08431, doi:10.1029/2007WR006060.[Link]

Winston, Richard B.; Shapiro, Allen M., 2007. BAT3 Analyzer: Real-Time Data Display and Interpretation Software for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3). Geological Survey (U.S.) Open-File Report 2007-1105, v, 65 p.[Link]

Shapiro, Allen M., 2007. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3). Geological Survey (U.S.) Open-File Report 2007-1134, ix, 127 p. [Link]

Goode, D.J., Tiedeman, C.R., Lacombe, P.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Shapiro, A.M., and Chapelle, F.H., 2007, Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3074, 2 p. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., Hsieh, P.A., Burton, W.C., and Walsh, G.J., 2007, Integrated multi-scale characterization of ground water flow and chemical transport in fractured crystalline rock at the Mirror Lake Site, New Hampshire, in Hyndman, D.W., Day-Lewis, F.D., and Singha, K., eds., Subsurface Hydrology: Data Integration for Properties and Processes: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph Series, v. 171, p. 201–225. [Link]

Shapiro, A.M., 2007, Publishing our "ugly babies": Ground Water, v. 45, p. 655. [Link]

Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Zygnerski, M.R., Wacker, M.A., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Osborn, C.L., and Ryan, J.N., 2005, Assessing the vulnerability of a municipal well field to contamination in a karst aquifer: Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, v.11, no.4, p.319-331. [Link]

Greene, Earl A.; Shapiro, Allen M.; LaMotte, Andrew E., 2004. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water discharge to the Washington METRO subway tunnel near the Medical Center station and Crossover, Montgomery County, Maryland. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4294, v, 33 p. : col. ill., col. maps ; 28 cm. [Link]

Becker, M.W., Collins, S.A., Metge, D.W., Harvey, R.W., and Shapiro, A.M., 2004, Effect of cell physicochemical characteristics and motility on bacterial transport in groundwater: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 69, nos. 3-4, p. 195-213. [Link]

Wood, W.W., Kraemer, T.F., and Shapiro, A., 2004, Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: A diffusion/ion exchange model: Ground Water, v. 42, p. 552-567. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2004, Borehole Testing System: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Patent and Trademark Office, United States Patent Number 6,761,062, 12 p. [Link]

Becker, M. W., Metge, D. W., Collins, S. A., Shapiro, A. M., and Harvey, R. W., 2003, Bacterial transport experiments in fractured crystalline Bedrock, Ground Water, v. 41, no. 5, p. 682-689. [Link]

Becker, M. W., and Shapiro, A. M., 2003, Interpreting tracer breakthrough tailing from different forced-gradient tracer experiments configurations in fractured bedrock, Water Resources Research, v. 39, no. 1, 1024, doe:10.1029/2001WR001190.[Link]

Shapiro, Allen M., 2002. Fractured-rock aquifers, understanding an increasingly important source of water. Fact Sheet 112-02, 2 p. [Link]

Ellefsen, K. J., Hsieh, P. A., and Shapiro, A. M., 2002, Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 50, p. 299-317. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2002, Cautions and suggestions for geochemical sampling in fractured rock, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 22, no. 3, p. 151-164. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2001. Characterizing ground-water chemistry and hydraulic properties of fractured-rock aquifers using the multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3). Fact Sheet 075-01, 4 p. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., 2001, Effective matrix diffusion in kilometer-scale transport in fractured crystalline rock, Water Resources Research, v. 37, no. 3, p. 507-522. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M., and Oki, D. S., 2000, Estimating formation properties from early-time oscillatory water levels in a pumped well,Journal of Hydrology, v. 236, no. 1-2, p. 91-108. [Link]

Becker, M. W., and Shapiro, A. M., 2000, Tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock—Evidence of nondiffusive breakthrough tailing, Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 7, p. 1677-1686. [Link]

Greene, E. A.; Shapiro, A. M.; Carter, J. M., 1999. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers near Spearfish, South Dakota. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; Branch of Information Services [distributor], Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4156, v, 64 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.

Ellefson, K. J.; Kibler, J. E.; Hsieh, P. A.; Shapiro, A. M. , 1998. Crosswell seismic tomography at the USGS fractured rock research site data collection, data processing, and tomograms. U.S. Geological Survey : [Books and Open-file Reports Section, distributor], Open-File Report 98-510, 1 computer laser optical disc :ill. (some col.), map ;4 3/4 in., in plastic box (13 x 15 x 1 cm.)

Shapiro, A. M., Oki, D. S., and Greene, 1998, Estimating formation properties from early-time recovery in wells subject to turbulent head losses, Journal of Hydrology, v. 208, no. 3-4, p. 223-236. [Link]

Rosenberry, D. O., Bukaveckas, P. A., Buso, D. C., Likens, G. E., Shapiro, A. M., and Winter, T. C., 1998, Movement of road salt to a small New Hampshire lake, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, v. 109, no. 1-4, p. 179-206. [Link]

Greene, E. A., and Shapiro, A. M., 1998, AIRSLUG: A FORTRAN Program for the Computation of Type Curves to Estimate Transmissivity and Storativity from Prematurely Terminated Air-Pressurized Slug Tests, Ground Water, v. 36, no. 2, p. 373-376.[Link]

Shapiro, A. M., and Hsieh, P. A., 1998, How good are estimates of transmissivity from slug tests in fractured rock? Ground Water, v. 36, no. 1, p. 37-48. [Link]

Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M., 1997. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for Simulation of Variable-Density Saturated-Unsaturated Ground-Water Flow with Solute or Energy Transport). U.S. Geological Survey ; U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services [distributor], Open-File Report 97-421, 106 p. :ill. ;28 cm. [Link]

Shapiro, A. M.; Margolin, Joshua; Dolev, Shahar; Ben-Israel, Yaacov , 1997. A Graphical-User Interface for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW-96) using Argus Numerical Environments. U.S. Geological Survey ; Branch of Information Services [distributor], Open-File Report 97-121, vi, 50 p. :ill. ;28 cm.

Shapiro, Allen M.; Hsieh, P. A.; Winter, Thomas C., 1995. The Mirror Lake fractured-rock research site; a multidisciplinary research effort in characterizing ground-water flow and chemical transport in fractured rock. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 138-95, 1 sheet : ill., maps ; 28 cm. ill., maps ;

Shapiro, A. M., and Greene, E. A., 1995, Interpretation of prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests, Ground Water, v. 33. no. 4, p. 539-546. [Link]

Torgersen, T., Drenkard, S., Stute, M., Schlosser, P., and Shapiro, A. M., 1995, Mantle helium in ground waters of eastern North America: Time and space constraints on sources, Geology, v. 23, no. 8, p. 675-678. [Link]