Jeffrey Kennedy, Ph.D.

Biography

My research focuses on measuring and interpreting small changes in gravity as they relate to the hydrology of alluvial basins in the southwestern U.S. Current projects focus on the hydrology of the lower Colorado River, namely the lining of the All American Canal and environmental flood releases in the Colorado River Delta related to Minute 319.

As the geophysics specialist at the Arizona Water Science Center, I oversee the the Southwest Gravity Program, a joint effort of the New Mexico and Arizona Water Science Centers to collect high-quality, hydrologically-useful repeat microgravity data throughout the western U.S. More information, including a complete bibliography, is at the Arizona Water Science Center's Gravity Webpage.

Journal articles and book chapters

Kennedy, J., Rodríguez-Burgueno, E., and Ramírez-Hernández, J., 2016, Groundwater response to the 2014 pulse flow in the Colorado River Delta, Ecological Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.10.072

Nelson, S., Ramírez-Hernández, J., Rodríguez-Burgueno, E., Milliken, J., Kennedy, J., Zamora-Arroyo, F., Schlatter, K., Santiago-Serrano, E., Carrera-Villa, E., 2016, A History of the 2014 Minute 319 Environmental Pulse Flow as Documented by Satellite Imagery, Ecological Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.10.040

Kennedy, J., Ferré, T.P.A., and Creutzfeldt, B., 2016, Time-lapse gravity data for monitoring and modeling artificial recharge through a thick unsaturated zone, Water Resources Research, 52, 7244–7261, doi:10.1002/ 2016WR018770.

Kennedy, J. and Ferré, T.P.A., 2016, Accounting for time- and space-varying changes in the gravity field to improve the network adjustment of relative-gravity data: Geophysical Journal International, v. 204, no. 8, p. 892-906. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv493

Kennedy, J., Ferré, T.P.A., Güntner, A., Abe, M., and Creutzfeldt, B., 2014, Direct measurement of subsurface mass change using the variable baseline gravity gradient method: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 41, no. 8, p. 2827–2834.doi: 10.1002/2014GL059673

Kennedy, J., Goodrich, C., and Unkrich, C., 2013, Model enhancements for urban runoff predictions in the south-west USA, in Runoff Prediction in Ungauged Basins: Synthesis Across Processes, Places and Scales.  Eds. Blöschl, G., M. Sivapalan, T. Wagener, A. Viglione and H. Savenije, Cambridge University Press, pp. 462

Kennedy, J., Goodrich, D., and Unkrich, C., 2013, Using the KINEROS2 modeling framework to evaluate the increase in storm runoff from residential development in a semi-arid environment, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 18(6), p. 698–706. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000655

Goodrich, D.C., Burns, I.S., Unkrich, C.L., Semmens, D.J., Guertin, D.P., Hernandez, M., Yatheendradas, S., Kennedy, J.R., and Levick, L.R., 2012, KINEROS2/AGWA: Model use, calibration, and validation. Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 55(4), 14p.

Schmerge, D., Francis, O., Henton, J., Ingles, D., Jones, D., Kennedy, J., Krauterbluth, K., Liard, J., Newell, D., Sands, R., Schiel, A., Silliker, J., and van Westrum, D., 2012, Results of the first North American comparison of absolute gravimeters, NACAG-2010, Journal of Geodesy, vol. 86(8), p. 591-596. doi:10.1007/s00190-011-0539-y

Lohse, K., Gallo, E., and Kennedy, J., 2010, Possible Tradeoffs from Urbanization on Groundwater Recharge and Water Quality: Southwest Hydrology, vol. 9, p. 18-20.

Paige, G.B., Stone, J.J., Smith, J., and Kennedy, J.R., 2003. The Walnut Gulch rainfall simulator: A computer-controlled variable intensity rainfall simulator: Applied Engr. in Agric., vol. 20(1), p. 25-31.

Peer-reviewed USGS reports

Kennedy, J.R., 2016, Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016–1155, 15 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161155.

Kennedy, J.R., 2016, Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7SQ8XHX

Gungle, Bruce, Callegary, J.B., Paretti, N.V., Kennedy, J.R., Eastoe, C.J., Turner, D.S., Dickinson, J.E., Levick, L.R., and Sugg, Z.P., 2016, Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5114, 90 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20165114

Coes, A.L., Land, Michael, Densmore, J.N., Landrum, M.T., Beisner, K.R., Kennedy, J.R., Macy, J.P., and Tillman, F.D., 2015, Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report Series 2015–5102, 59 p. doi: 10.3133/sir20155102.

Cordova, J.T., Dickinson, J.E., Beisner, K.R., Hopkins, C.B., Kennedy, J.R., Pool, D.R., Glenn, E.P., Nagler, P.L., and Thomas, B.E., 2015, Hydrology of the middle San Pedro Watershed, southeastern Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5040, 77 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20135040.

Kennedy, J.R., 2015, Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1086, 26 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151086.

Kennedy, J.R., Koth, K.R., and Carruth, R.L., 2015, Surface and subsurface microgravity data in the vicinity of Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1043, 32 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151043.

Paretti, N.V., Kennedy, J.R., Turney, L.A., and Veilleux, A.G., 2014, Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Arizona, developed with unregulated and rural peak-flow data through water year 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5211, 61 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145211.

Kennedy, J.R., and Paretti, N.V., 2014, Evaluation of the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban watersheds in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5121, 29 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145121.

Kennedy, J.R., Paretti, N.V., and Veilleux, A.G., 2015, Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of 1-, 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day flood-duration flows in Arizona (ver. 1.1, April 2015): U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5109, 35 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145109.

Paretti, N.V., Kennedy, J.R., and Cohn, T.A., 2014, Evaluation of the expected moments algorithm and a multiple low-outlier test for flood frequency analysis at streamgaging stations in Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5026, 61 p., available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145026.

Truini, M., Beard, L.S., Kennedy, J., and Anning, D.W., 2013, Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins, Mohave County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey ScientificInvestigations Report 2012–5275, 47 p., available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5275/.

Macy, J.P., Amoroso, L., Kennedy, J., and Unema, J., 2012, Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1018, 20 p., available athttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1018/.

Beard, L. S., Kennedy, J., Truini, M., and Felger, T., 2011, Geologic map of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys and surrounding areas, northwest Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1225, pamphlet 43 p., 1 map sheet, scale 1:250,000, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1225/.

Kennedy, J., and Winester, D., 2011, Gravity data from the San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1287, 11 p., available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1287/

Kennedy, J.R., and Gungle, B., 2010, Quantity and sources of base flow in the San Pedro River near Tombstone, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5200, 43 p., available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5200/

Dickinson, J.E., Kennedy, J.R., Pool, D.R., Cordova, J.T., Parker, J.T., Macy, J.P., and Thomas, B., 2010, Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5126, 36 p., available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5126/

Conference abstracts and presentations

Kennedy, J., Ramirez-Hernandez, J., and E. Rodriguez Burgueño, 2015, Experimental Floods in a Time of Drought: The 2014 Pulse Flow in the Lower Colorado River, Arizona, USA, and Mexico, AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract H21B-1356.

Kennedy, J., and Ferré, T., 2014, Too Fast to Measure: Network Adjustment of Rapidly Changing Gravity Fields: AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. Abstract 43C-02

Macy, J.P., Kennedy, J.R., and Callegary, J., 2014, Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment: AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. Abstract NS41A-3830

Ferré, T.P., Kikuchi, C., Vrugt, J., Kennedy, J., and Bayley, T., 2014, Don’t use geophysics: AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. Abstract H43O-07

Ferré, T.P.A., Kennedy, J., Güntner, A., Abe, M., and Creutzfeldt, B., 2014, Using superconducting gravimeters as an infiltrometer: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, EGU2014-6373

Kennedy, J., Ferré, T.P., Abe, M., and Güntner, A., 2013, Increased accuracy through variable-baseline gradient measurements with multiple superconducting gravimeters: AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 9–13, San Francisco, CA. Abstract G11A-0906

Kennedy, J., and Ferré, T., 2013, Newly developed gravity methods for monitoring infiltration and recharge: Arizona Hydrological Society Symposium, Sep. 18–20, Tucson, AZ.

Kennedy, J.,  Ferré, T., Creutzfeldt, B., Güntner, A., Neumeyer, J., Brinton, E., and Warburton, R., 2013, Smaller is better: first experiences using the iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure. 17th International Symposium on Earth Tides, Apr. 1519, Warsaw, Poland.

Creutzfeldt, B., J. Kennedy, and P. A. Ferré., 2012, Water-storage change measured with high-precision gravimetry at a groundwater recharge facility in Tucson, USA (Invited): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 37, San Francisco, CA. Abstract NS44A-02

Kennedy, J., B. Creutzfeldt, and P.A. Ferré., 2012, Monitoring vadose zone infiltration with time-lapse gravity data at a municipal recharge and withdrawal facility (Invited): Geological Society of America annual meeting, Nov. 47, Charlotte, NC.

Kennedy, J., Creutzfeldt, B., Ferré, P.A., and Güntner, A., 2012. Gravity-measured water storage change and subsurface hydraulic properties at a managed recharge facility in Tucson, AZ (Invited): EAGE Near Surface Meeting, Sep. 35, Paris, France.

Kennedy J., Creutzfeldt B., and Ferré, T., 2012, Recent developments in the use of time-lapse gravity measurements to monitor groundwater storage change and infer aquifer properties: USGS Groundwater meeting, Aug. 6–10, Denver, CO.

Kennedy J., Creutzfeldt B., and Ferré, T., 2012, Gravity-measured water storage change and subsurface hydraulic properties at a managed recharge facility in Tucson, USA: Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 2012), Mar. 2529, Tucson, AZ.

Macy, J., Amoroso, L. Kennedy, J., and Unema, J., 2012, Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona: Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 2012), Mar. 2529, Tucson, AZ.

Kennedy, J., Murdoch, L., Long, A., and Koth, K., 2011, Measuring groundwater flow at the Sanford Laboratory with coupled surface/subsurface time-lapse gravity measurements (Invited): American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 5–9, San Francisco, CA.  Abstract NH54A-01

Kennedy, J., Pool, D., Ferré, P.A., and Wilson, C., 2011, Using high-resolution gravity and pumping data to infer aquifer parameters: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 5–9, San Francisco, CA. Abstract H43E-1273

Kennedy, J., and Paretti, N., 2011, Arizona flood frequency analysis: updated tools and products: Arizona Hydrological Soc. Symposium, Sep. 1820, Flagstaff, AZ.

Truini, M., Beard, S., Kennedy, J., and Macy, J., 2011, Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai, Detrital, and Sacramento Valleys, Arizona: Rocky Mountain (63rd Annual) and Cordilleran (107th Annual) Joint Meeting, May 1820, Salt Lake City, UT.

Pool, D.R., Kennedy, J.R., and Conway, B., 2010, Observations of the spatial and temporal distributions of gravity and water-mass change in the western United States: IGCP 565 Workshop 3–Separating Hydrological and Tectonic Signals in Geodetic Observations, Oct. 11–13, Reno, NV.

Winester, D., Pool, D., and Kennedy, J., 2010, A regional-scale network for geoid monitoring and satellite gravimetry validation: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 1317, San Francisco, CA. Abstract G41A-0795

Kennedy, J., 2009, Debris flows and drought: Monitoring aquifer storage during hydrologic extremes in the upper San Pedro basin, 2000-2009: Arizona Hydrological Soc. Symposium, Aug. 30–Sep.2, Scottsdale, AZ.

Kennedy, J., 2009, Expanding the Usefulness of Existing Data-Collection Infrastructure with Wireless Sensor Networks: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 1418, San Francisco, CA. Abstract IN23C-1073

Dickinson, J.E., Kennedy, J., Callegary, J., and Pool, D.R., 2009, Incorporating transient electromagnetic, gravity, and well log data for developing hydrogeologic framework and ground water models, National Groundwater Summit, April 19-23, Tucson, AZ.

Finke, T., Moran, M.S., Yool, S., and Kennedy, J. 2008, Object-Oriented Classification to Map Impervious Surfaces for Hydrologic Models: Conference of Association of American Geographers, Apr. 15–19, Boston, MA.

Carruth, R., and Kennedy, J., 2008, The Use of Gravity Methods in Arizona’s Rural Watershed Initiative Projects: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 1519, San Francisco, CA. Abstract H21D-0868

Kennedy, J., and Carruth, R., 2008, The Role of Absolute Gravimetry in Arizona’s Rural Watershed Initiative Projects: Arizona Hydrological Soc. Symposium, Sep 20–24, Flagstaff, AZ.

Kennedy, J., Leenhouts, J., and Goodrich, D., 2007, Runoff generation in a suburban development: Arizona Hydrological Soc. Symposium, Aug. 29–Sep. 1, Tucson, AZ.

Kennedy, J.; Leenhouts, J.; Unkrich, C.; and Goodrich, D., 2006, Parameterization of an Urban Runoff Model, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 11–15, San Francisco, CA. Abstract H43E-0534

Kennedy, J.R., Keefer, T.O., Paige, G.B., and Barnes, F. 2003. Evaluation of dielectric constant-based soil moisture sensors in a semi-arid rangeland: Proc. 1st Interagency Conf. on Research in the Watersheds, K.G. Renard, S. McElroy, W. Gburek, E. Canfield, and R.L. Scott (eds.), Oct. 27-30, Benson, AZ, pp. 503-508.