Robert F Stallard

Biography

Robert Stallard has worked as a scientist in the National Research Program of Water Mission Area since 1987.He studies how land-cover and climate change affect water movement through soils, weathering, and erosion, and how these, in turn, affect the composition and dispersal of dissolved and solid phases in rivers and trace gases in the atmosphere. Areas of expertise include surface-water hydrology, major element and nutrient biogeochemistry, soil formation and sediment genesis, vegetation-landscape interaction, carbon-cycle characterization on land and in the ocean, and assessment of land-use and climate change. His work has included the study of natural and human-altered landscapes, in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and Africa, including large parts of the Amazon, Orinoco, Mississippi, and Panama Canal Basins and eastern Puerto Rico.

 

Most of his current efforts are committed to a multi-catchment investigations designed to distinguish the roles of vegetation, climate, and land-cover change and to put this in a hydrologic and biogeochemical framework as well as to examine ecosystem costs and services focusing on water, carbon, and biodiversity. Two projects currently consume most of his time: (1) Work related to the Luquillo USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) Project in eastern Puerto Rico and parallel work in Panama, which has as a goal the comprehensive assessment of catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry in a hydrologically energetic landscapes. In eastern Puerto Rico there is a four-way comparison among watersheds on quartzose and quartz-free igneous rocks, and forested versus agriculturally developed. The parallel work in Panama allows additional comparisons with a forested watershed on a flat landscape developed on quartz-free igneous rocks having thick soils and with a forested watershed on a steep carbonate landscape with thin soils. (2) The Agua Salud Project in the Central Panama Canal Basin examines the manifold effects of different styles of reforestation as compared to mature forested and deforested catchments. He is working on the foundations of a 20-to-40 year study that will be used to assess hydrologic and biogeochemical processes both at a fine scale and at the scale of the Panama Canal Basin.

Five lesser programs are also ongoing: (3) the study of the history of land-cover change in the conterminous United States as it relates to carbon cycling, (4) biogeochemical implications of event-type processes such as floods, fires, and landslides at the hillslope to small-watershed scale, (5) intercomparison of soils, nutrients, and plants in forest-dynamics research plots of the global tropics, (6) biogeochemistry of the Boulder Creek watershed, Colorado, and (7) biogeochemical implications of glacial erosion.

 

EDUCATION

National Research Council Post-Doctoral Fellowship: 1981, At the U.S. Geological Survey - Office of Marine Geology, Woods Hole, MA. Clay mineralogy of the Amazon River system.

Ph.D., Chemical Oceanography: 1980, Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography. Ph.D. thesis entitled "Major Element Geochemistry of the Amazon River System."

B.S., Earth & Planetary Sciences: 1974, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Emphasis in Planetary Physics and Chemistry.

 

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

Research Hydrologist (Geochemist): 10/1987-present. U.S. Geological Survey - Water Resources Division - Central Region - National Research Program. Chief Scientist, Sediment-Water Geochemistry in Large River Systems.

Assistant Professor (Geology): 7/1981-9/1987. Princeton University, Department of Geological and Geophysical Sciences.

Research Geologist (Geochemist): 12/1979-6/1983. U.S. Geological Survey - Geologic Division - Office of Marine Geology, Woods Hole, MA.

 

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES

  •          American Geophysical Union
  •          Association for Tropical Biology
  •          Geological Society of America
  •          Sigma Xi

 

AWARDS AND HONORS

  •          Woods Hole Fellowship (1974-75).
  •          National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship (1975-78).
  •          National Research Council Post-Doctoral Fellowship (1979-80).
  •          Princeton University Dusenbury Preceptorship in Geology (1983-87).
  •          Research Fellowship at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama (1986).
  •          Research Fellowship at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama (1990).
  •          Performance Award by US Forest Service for work done in studying mercury contamination caused by gold mining in the Caroní River Basin (1995).         
  • Meritorious Service Award for the Department of the Interior (2002) “In recognition of his exceptional contributions to the development of new and innovative research programs in the U.S. Geological Survey.”

 

Publications

Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., 2012, Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico—Chapter C, in Murphy, S.F. , and Stallard, R.F., Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789–C, p. 43-84. [Link]

Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., 2012, Methods used to analyze water quality of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico— Appendix 2, inMurphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F. , Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789, p. 289-292. [Link]

Murphy, S.F., Stallard, R.F., Larsen, M.C., and Gould, W.A., 2012, Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico—Chapter A, in Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789–A, p. 1-23. [Link]

Stallard, R.F., 2012, Atmospheric inputs to watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico—Chapter D, in Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789–D, p. 85-112. [Link]

Stallard, R.F., 2012, Data processing and computation to characterize hydrology and compare water quality of four watersheds in Puerto Rico— Appendix 1, in Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789, p. 263-287. [Link]

Stallard, R.F., 2012, Weathering, landscape equilibrium, and carbon in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico—Chapter H, in Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F. , Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789–H, p. 199-248. [Link]

Stallard, R.F., and Murphy, S.F., 2012, Water quality and mass transport in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico—Chapter E, in Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., Editors, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, USGS Professional Paper 1789–E, p. 113-152. [Link]

Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., 2012, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1789, 292 p. [Link]

Murphy, S.F., and Stallard, R.F., 2012, Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Reston, VA, U. S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1789, 292 p.— Instructions for downloading data from the National Water Information System (NWIS)[Download File]

Shanley, J.B., McDowell, W.H., and Stallard, R.F., 2011, Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed: Water Resources Research, v. 47, no. W07515, p. 1-11.

Stallard, R.F., Ogden, F.L., Elsenbeer, H., and Hall, J., 2010, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment: Agua Salud Project: Water Resources Impact, v. 12, no. 4, p. 17-20.

Ackerman, Katherine V.; Mixon, David M.; Sundquist, Eric T.; Stallard, Robert F.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Stewart, David W., 2009. RESIS-II: An Updated Version of the Original Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) Database. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 434, Report: iv, 22 p.; Database (mdb) [Link]

Barthold, F.K., Stallard, R.F., and Elsenbeer, H., 2008, Soil Nutrient-Landscape Relationships in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Panama: Forest Ecology and Management, v. 255, no. 3-4, p. 1135-1148.

Harden, J.W., Berhe, A.A., Torn, M., Harte, J., Liu, S., and Stallard, R.F., 2008, Soil erosion: Data say C sink: Science, v. 320, no. 5873, p. 178-179.

Mixon, D. M., Kinner, D. A., Stallard, R. F., and Syvitski, J. P. M., 2008, Geolocation of man-made reservoirs across terrains of varying complexity using GIS: Computers & Geosciences: Computers & Geosciences, v. 34, no. 10, p. 1184-1197.

John, R., Dalling, J.W., Harms, K.E., Yavitt, J. B.; Stallard, R. F., Mirabello, M., Hubbell, S. P.; Valencia, R., Navarrete, H., Vallejo, M., and Foster, R. B., 2007, Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical tree species: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, v. 104, no. 3, p. 864-869.

Peters, N.E., Shanley, J.B., Aulenbach, B.T., Webb, R.M., Campbell, D.H., Hunt, R., Larsen, M.C., Stallard, R.F., Troester, J., Walker, J.F., 2006, Water and solute mass balance of five small, relatively undisturbed watersheds in the U.S.: Science of the Total Environment, v., 358, p. 221-242.

Svenning, J.-C., Engelbrecht, B.M.J., Kinner, D.A., Kursar, T. A., Stallard, R. F., and Wright, S. J., 2006, The relative roles of environment, history, and local dispersal in controlling the distributions of common tree and shrub species in a tropical forest landscape, Panama: Journal of Tropical Ecology, v. 22, p. 575-586.

Kinner, D.A., Mitasova, H., Stallard, R.F., Harmon, R.S., and Toma, L., 2005, GIS-Based stream and network analysis for the upper Río Chagres Basin, Panama, in Harmon, R.S., editor, The Río Chagres, Panama: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed: Dordtrecht, The Netherlands, Springer, Water Science and Technology Library 52, p. 83-95.

Denning, S., Cook, R.B., Dilling, L., Doney, S., Heath, L., McGuire, D., McKee, B., Sabine, C., Oren, R., Paustian, K., Randerson, J., Reilly, L., Running, S., Stallard, R.F., Torn, M., and Wofsy, S., 2004, Science Implementation Strategy for the North American Carbon Program: National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA., 80p.

Godsey, S., H. Elsenbeer, and R.F. Stallard, 2004. Overland flow generation in two lithologically-distinct rainforest catchments, Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Journal of Hydrology, v. 295, p. 276-290.

Kinner, D.A., and Stallard, R.F., 2004, Identifying storm-flow pathways in a rainforest catchment using hydrological and geochemical modelling: Hydrological Processes, v. 18, p. 2851-2875.

Svenning, J.-C., Kinner, D.A., Stallard, R.F., Engelbrecht, B., and Wright, S.J., 2004, Determinism in plant community structure across a tropical forest landscape: Ecology, v. 85, p. 2526-2538.

Ibáñez D., R., Condit, R., Angehr, G.R., Aguilar, S., García, T., Martínez, R., Sanjur, A., Stallard R.F., Wright S.J., Rand A.S., Heckadon Moreno S., 2002, An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 80, p. 65-95.

Condit, R., Robinson, W.D., Ibáñez D., R., Aguilar, S., Sanjur, A., Martínez, R., Stallard, R.F., García, T., Angehr, G.R., Petit, L., Wright, S.J., Robinson, T.R., and Heckadon M., S., 2001, The status of the Panama Canal Watershed and Its biodiversity at the beginning of the 21st Century: Bioscience, v. 51, no. 5, p. 389-398.

Pacala, S.W., Hurtt, G.C., Baker, D., Peylin, P., Houghton, R.A., Birdsey, R.A., Heath, L., Sundquist, E.T., Stallard, R.F., Ciais, P., Moorcroft, P., Caspersen, J.P., Shevliakova, E., Moore, B., Kohlmaier, G., Holland, E., Gloor, M., Harmon, M.E., Fan, S.-M., Sarmiento, J.L., Goodale, C.L., Schimel, D., and Field C.B., 2001, Consistent land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink estimates: Science, v. 292, no. 5525, p. 2316-2320.

Stallard, R.F., 2001, Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of government data archives: Conservation Biology, v. 15, no. 4, p. 1-16.

Stallard, R.F., Mixon, D.A., Kinner, D.A., and Worstell, B., 2001, RESIS-II: Making the Reservoir Survey Information System complete and user friendly, in Proceedings of the Seventh Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, March 25 to 29, 2001, Reno, Nevada: Subcommittee on Sedimentation, Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, Washington, DC, p. IX-9 - IX-11.

Larsen, Matthew C.; Stallard, Robert F., 2000. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: A Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets Program Site. U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 163-99, 1 folded sheet ([4] p.) : col. ill., col. map ; 28 cm. col. ill., col. map ; [Link]

Stallard, R.F. 2000, Tectonic processes and erosion, in Jacobson, M.C., Charleson, R.J., Rodhe, H., and Orians, G.H., editors, Earth System Science: From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Change: San Diego, California, Academic Press. p. 195-229.

Sundquist, E. T.; Stallard, R. F.; Bliss, N. B.; Markewich, H. W.; Harden, J. W.; Pavich, M. J.; Dean, M. D., Jr. , 1998. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project science plan. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 98-177, 44 p. [Link]

Brown, E. T., Stallard, R. F., Larsen, M. C., Bourlès, D. L., Raisbeck, G. M., and Yiou, F., 1998, Determination of predevelopment denudation rates of an agricultural watershed (Cayaguás River, Puerto Rico) using in situ-produced 10Be in river-borne quartz: Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters, , v. 160, p. 723-728.

Markewich, Helaine W.; Bliss, Norman B.; Stallard, Robert F.; Sundquist, Eric T., 1997. Can the global carbon budget be balanced?. U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 137-97, [2] p. : col. ill., col. map ; 28 cm. col. ill., col. map [Link]

Goldstein, S.L., Arndt, N.T., and Stallard, R.F., 1997, The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments: Chemical Geology, v. 139, p. 271-286.

Axtmann, E. V., and Stallard, R. F., 1995, Chemical weathering in the South Cascade Glacier basin, comparison of subglacial and extra-glacial weathering, in Tonnessen, K. A., Williams, M. W., and Tranter, Martyn, eds., Biogeochemistry of Seasonally Snow-Covered Catchments: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 228, p. 431-439.

Brown, E. T., Stallard, R. F., Larsen, M. C., Raisbeck, G. M., and Yiou, F., 1995, Denudation rates determined from the accumulation of in situ-produced 10Be in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 129, p. 193-202.

Edmond, J. M., Palmer, M. R., Measures, C. I., Grant, B., and Stallard, R. F., 1995, The fluvial geochemistry and denudation rate of the Guayana Shield in Venezuela, Colombia, and Brazil: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59, p. 3301-3325.

Stallard, R. F., 1995, Tectonic, environmental, and human aspects of weathering and erosion: A global review using a steady-state perspective: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 23, p. 11-39.

Stallard, R. F., 1995, Relating chemical and physical erosion: in White, A.F., and Brantley, S.L. eds., Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals: Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 31, p.543-564.

Keller, M. and Stallard, R. F., 1994, Methane Emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 99, p. 8307-8318.

Larsen, M. C.; Collar, P. D.; Stallard, R. F., 1993. Research plan for the investigation of water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor], Open-File Report 92-150, v, 19 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.

Edmond, J. M., Stallard, R. F., Craig, H., Craig, V., Weiss, R. F., and Coulter, G. W., 1993, Nutrient chemistry of the water column of Lake Tanganyika: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 34, p. 725-738.

Jewell, P. W., Stallard, R. F., and Mellor, G. L., 1993, Numerical studies of bottom shear stress and sediment distribution on the Amazon continental shelf: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 63, p. 734-745.