These datasets are from an incubation experiment with a combination of two minerals (feldspar or amorphous aluminum hydroxide), one living species of bacteria (Escherichia coli), and one added form of C (Arthrobacter crystallopoietes necromass). We characterized the sorptive properties of the minerals with batch sorption experiments using four low molecular weight C substrates (glucose, oxalic acid, glutamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid): this data is provided in the SterileSorptionData file. We then conducted a 3-wk long incubation in serum vials or imaging chambers. In both incubations, feldspar (200 mg) or amorphous aluminum hydroxide (100 mg) was given 1 of 4 different treatments: (1) a water control with autoclaved water, (2) a microbial necromass control with autoclaved and 99% 13C enriched A. crystallopoietes necromass, (3) a E. coli control with living E. coli, or (4) a microbial necromass and E. coli incubation with both the autoclaved and 99% 13C enriched A. crystallopoietes necromass and living E. coli. We measured the quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO2 through the incubation: this data is provided in the CO2data file. Throughout the incubation we collected Raman spectra from incubations in imaging in order to quantity the 13C content of microbial biomass and changes in mineral-associated OC chemistry. Microbial biomass 13C content predictions and processed Raman spectra across the phenylalanine regions used to create the predictions are provided in the AmAlOHBiomass and FeldBiomass files; the related processing steps are described under Data Quality: Process Step 4. Processed Raman spectra used to examine changes in mineral-associated OC chemistry are provided in the RamanData file with the related processing steps described under Data Quality: Process Step 5. At the end of the incubation we extracted the minerals with water to remove DOC, this data is provided in the DOCData file.