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How can I tell the difference between Landsat Collections data and Landsat data I have downloaded in the past?

The first indication you have data processed meeting Collections specifications is that your data will have a Landsat Product Identifier, not the historical Landsat Scene ID. Along with information inherited from the Scene ID, the Landsat Product Identifier includes the processing level, processing date, collection number, and collection category (bolded below).

Scene ID Landsat Product Identifier
LXSPPPRRRYYYYDDDGSIVV LXSS_LLL_PPPRRR_YYYYMMDD_yyyymmdd_CC_TX
L = Landsat
X = Sensor
S = Satellite
PPP = WRS path
RRR = WRS row
YYYY = Year
DDD = Julian day of year
GSI = Ground station identifier
VV = Archive version number
L = Landsat
X = Sensor (C=OLI?TIRS Combined, O=OLI-only, T=TIRS-only, E=ETM+, T=TM, M=MSS)
SS = Satellite (07=Landsat 7, 08=Landsat 8)
LLLL = Processing correction level (L1TP=Precision Terrain, L1GT=Systematic Terrain, L1GS=Systematic)
PPP = WRS path
RRR = WRS row
YYYYMMDD = Acquisition year (YYYY)/Month (MM)/Day (DD)
yyyymmdd = Processing year (yyyy)/Month (mm)/Day (dd)
CC = Collection number (01, 02)
TX = Collection category (RT = Real-Time, T1=Tier 1, or T2=Tier 2)

 
Examples:
LC80290302015343LGN00
LE70160392004262EDC02
LT40170361982320XXX08
LM10170391976031AAA01
Examples:
LC08_L1GT_029030_20151209_20160131_01_RT
LE07_L1TP_016039_20040918_20160211_01_T1
LT04_L1GS_017036_19821115_20160315_01_T2
LM01_L1GS_017039_19760131_20160225_01_T2

The historical scene ID is listed in the metadata file (MTL.txt) delivered with the Level-1 data product, and is also visible and searchable (along with the Landsat Collection Product ID) in the online metadata on EarthExplorer.

Learn more: Landsat Collections

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