The bedrock geology of the 7.5-minute Crown Point quadrangle consists of deformed and metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic gneisses of the Adirondack Highlands unconformably overlain by weakly deformed lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Champlain Valley. The Mesoproterozoic rocks occur on the eastern edge of the Adirondack Highlands and represent an extension of the Grenville Province of Laurentia. Granulite facies Mesoproterozoic paragneiss, marble, and amphibolite hosted the emplacement of granitic orthogneiss at approximately 1.18–1.15 giga-annum (Ga, billion years before present). The earliest of four phases of deformation (D1) is characterized by gneissosity, rarely preserved F1 isoclinal folds, and migmatite in the host rocks. Subsequent D2 deformation produced a composite penetrative gneissosity, migmatite, and isoclinal F2 folds. Towards the end of D2, felsic magmatism (including the regionally extensive Lyon Mountain Granite Gneiss, abbreviated “LMG”) spread by penetrative migration as semiconcordant alkali feldspar granite sheets subparallel to S2 into previously deformed lithologies. The LMG crystallized at approximately 1.15 Ga and displays synkinematic F2 folds thus constraining the time of D2 deformation. Exhumation during D3 produced F3 folds exhibited in regional domes and basins, such as the Keeney Mountain synform, local reactivation of the S2 foliation, partial melting, metamorphism, metasomatism, iron ore remobilization, and intrusion of magnetite-bearing pegmatite both as layer-parallel sills and crosscutting dikes. D4 created NE- and NW-trending boudinage, local high-grade ductile shear zones, and crosscutting granitic pegmatite dikes. Kilometer (km)-scale lineaments readily observed in lidar data are Ediacaran mafic dikes and Phanerozoic brittle faults. The Paleozoic rocks are part of the Early Cambrian to Late Ordovician great American carbonate bank on the ancient margin of Laurentia. Cambrian-Ordovician stratigraphy records an approximately 1-km-thick section and a transition from synrift clastics to passive margin peritidal carbonate buildups to gradually deeper water subtidal to shelf carbonates during foreland basin development associated with the Taconic orogeny. The Paleozoic rocks are weakly folded and block faulted. Large areas of the Champlain Valley are covered by undifferentiated glacial deposits, some of which contain mapped landslides. The map also shows waste rock piles and tailings from historical mining operations and large areas of artificial fill.
This study was undertaken to improve our understanding of the bedrock geology in the Adirondack Highlands, establish a modern framework for 1:24,000-scale bedrock geologic mapping in the Adirondacks, provide a context for historical iron mines in the eastern Adirondacks, and update the stratigraphy of the Champlain Valley in New York and Vermont. This Scientific Investigations Map of the Crown Point 7.5-minute quadrangle consists of a map sheet, an explanatory pamphlet, and a geographic information system database that includes bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map sheet includes a bedrock geologic map, a correlation of map units, a description of map units, an explanation of map symbols, three cross sections, and a simplified surficial geologic map that includes lidar percent slope. The explanatory pamphlet includes a discussion of the geology.
The bedrock geologic map on the map sheet is multi-layered and has been designed to enable the user to turn off the surficial map layer to view the concealed bedrock map units.
|Title||Bedrock geologic map of the Crown Point quadrangle, Essex County, New York, and Addison County, Vermont|
|Authors||Gregory J. Walsh, Randall C. Orndorff, Ryan J. McAleer|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Scientific Investigations Map|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Florence Bascom Geoscience Center|