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Publications

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Forest bird populations at the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Hawai‘i

Endemic Hawaiian forest birds have experienced dramatic population declines. The Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (BINWRC) was created for conservation of endangered Hawaiian forest birds and their habitats. Surveys have been conducted at two units of BINWRC to monitor forest bird populations and their response to management actions. We analyzed survey data from 1987 to 2019 at the Haka

Hypotheses and lessons from a native moth outbreak in a low-diversity, tropical rainforest

Outbreaks of defoliating insects in low-diversity tropical forests occur infrequently but provide valuable insights about outbreak ecology in temperate environments and in general. We investigated an extensive outbreak of the endemic koa moth (Scotorythra paludicola), which defoliated endemic koa trees (Acacia koa) over a third of their range on Hawai‘i Island during 2013 and 2014. At Hakalau Fore

Optimizing trilateration estimates for tracking fine-scale movement of wildlife using automated radio telemetry networks

A major advancement in the use of radio telemetry has been the development of automated radio tracking systems (ARTS), which allow animal movements to be tracked continuously. A new ARTS approach is the use of a network of simple radio receivers (nodes) that collect radio signal strength (RSS) values from animal-borne radio transmitters. However, the use of RSS-based localization methods in wildli

Management foundations for navigating ecological transformation by resisting, accepting, or directing social-ecological change

Despite striking global change, management to ensure healthy landscapes and sustained natural resources has tended to set objectives on the basis of the historical range of variability in stationary ecosystems. Many social–ecological systems are moving into novel conditions that can result in ecological transformation. We present four foundations to enable a transition to future-oriented conservat

2019-2021 Palila abundance estimates and trend

The palila (Loxioides bailleui) population on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai‘i Island, was estimated from annual surveys in 2019−2021, and a trend analysis was performed on survey data from 1998−2021. The 2019 population was estimated at 1,030−1,899 birds (point estimate: 1,432), the 2020 population was estimated at 964−1,700 birds (point estimate: 1,312), and the 2021 population was estimated at 452−94

Can we prove that an undetected species is absent? Evaluating whether brown treesnakes are established on the island of Saipan using surveillance and expert opinion

Detection of invasive species and decisions centered around early detection and rapid response (EDRR) are notorious challenges for decision makers. Detection probability is low for cryptic species, resources are limited, and ecological harm (especially for island ecosystems) can result from failure to remove invasive species due to inadequate or delayed surveillance efforts. Due to the proximity t

Influencing activity of bats by dimly lighting wind turbine surfaces with ultraviolet light

Wind energy producers need deployable devices for wind turbines that prevent bat fatalities. Based on the speculation that bats approach turbines after visually mistaking them for trees, we tested a potential light-based deterrence method. It is likely that the affected bats see ultraviolet (UV) light at low intensities. Here, we present the results of a multi-month experiment to cast dim, flicker

Current distribution and abundance of Kohala forest birds in Hawai‘i

The Kohala volcano is home to the most spatially isolated population of Hawaiian forest birds on Hawai‘i Island and contains one of the few native bird populations in the state that has not been monitored since the original Hawai‘i Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) in 1979. We surveyed 143 stations across 13 transects in Pu‘u ‘O ‘Umi Natural Area Reserve on Kohala from February through April 2017 and comp

Complex demographic responses to contrasting climate drivers lead to divergent population trends across the range of a threatened alpine plant

Alpine plants are likely to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their restricted distributions and sensitivity to rapid environmental shifts occurring in high-elevation ecosystems. The well-studied Haleakalā silversword (‘āhinahina, Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum) already exhibits substantial climate-associated population decline, and offers the opportunity to u

A science agenda to inform natural resource management decisions in an era of ecological transformation

Earth is experiencing widespread ecological transformation in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems that is attributable to directional environmental changes, especially intensifying climate change. To better steward ecosystems facing unprecedented and lasting change, a new management paradigm is forming, supported by a decision-oriented framework that presents three distinct management c

Modeling scenarios for the management of axis deer in Hawai‘i

Axis deer (Axis axis) are invasive species that threaten native ecosystems and agriculture on Maui Island. To mitigate negative effects, it is necessary to understand current abundance, population trajectory, and how to most effectively reduce the population. Our objectives were to examine the population history of Maui axis deer, estimate observed population growth, and use species-specific demog

Hawaiian hoary bat acoustic surveys on Marine Corps Base Hawaii, 2019–2021

The endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus semotus, Vespertilionidae, also known as Aeorestes semotus and ‘ōpe‘ape‘a) occurs on all the principal volcanic islands in Hawai‘i. Advances in acoustic bat monitoring techniques have contributed to the body of knowledge of bat activity and behavior in many areas of the State of Hawai‘i; however, there is still much that is unknown about the population a