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Genetic diversity, structure, and effective population size of an endangered, endemic hoary bat, ʻōpeʻapeʻa, across the Hawaiian Islands

Island bat species are disproportionately at risk of extinction, and Hawaiʻi’s only native terrestrial land mammal, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus semotus) locally known as ʻōpeʻapeʻa, is no exception. To effectively manage this bat species with an archipelago-wide distribution, it is important to determine the population size on each island and connectivity between islands. We used 18 nuclear m

Characterization of a small population of the orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion xanthomelas) in anchialine pools at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i Island

The endangered orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion xanthomelas) is a lowland inhabitant of freshwater and brackish wetland environments. Formerly one of the most widely distributed native insects in Hawai‘i, it now appears restricted to small populations on the islands of O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i. On Hawai‘i island, anchialine pools provide important habitat for M. xanthomelas, a

Burmese pythons in Florida: A synthesis of biology, impacts, and management tools

Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are native to southeastern Asia, however, there is an established invasive population inhabiting much of southern Florida throughout the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Pythons have severely impacted native species and ecosystems in Florida and represent one of the most intractable invasive-species management issues across the globe. The difficulty stems f

Suppression of invasive Brown Treesnakes and reintroduction of native avifauna on Guam

Many agencies and interest groups are committed to re-establishing components of Guam's native avifauna through the reintroduction of captive-reared birds or translocation from other islands in the Marianas if the Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis; BTS) can be eliminated. Island-wide eradication of BTS from Guam continues to appear out of reach, but with recent and future advancement in BTS suppr

Environmental monitoring for invasive fungal pathogens of ʽŌhiʽa (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the Island of Hawaiʽi

The invasive rust Austropuccina psidii was detected in the Hawaiian Islands in 2005 and has become widely established throughout the archipelago in both native and introduced species of Myrtaceae. Initial predictions about the impacts of the fungus on native ʽōhiʽa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), a keystone native tree, have not materialized, but there is ongoing concern that introductions of new

Size distribution and reproductive phenology of the invasive Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, Florida, USA

The design of successful invasive species control programs is often hindered by the absence of basic demographic data on the targeted population. Establishment of invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, Florida USA has led to local precipitous declines (> 90%) of mesomammal populations and is also a major threat to native populations of reptiles an

Hawaiian waterbird movement across a developed landscape

A key component for biologists managing mobile species is understanding where and when a species occurs at different locations and scaling management to fit the spatial and temporal patterns of movement. We established an automated radio-telemetry tracking network to document multi-year movement in 2016–2018 of 3 endangered waterbirds among wetlands on Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, USA: ʻalae ʻula or Hawaiian g

Density surface and excursion sets modeling as an approach to estimating population densities

Effective species management and conservation require knowledge of species distribution and status. We used point-transect distance sampling surveys of the endangered palila (Loxioides bailleui), a honeycreeper currently found only on the Island of Hawai'i, USA, to generate robust estimates of total abundance and simultaneously model the distribution, abundance, and spatial correlation of the spec

Ceratocystis lukuohia-infested ambrosia beetle frass as inoculum for Ceratocystis wilt of ʻōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha)

Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a) trees in Hawaiʻi are dying from two distinct diseases, collectively referred to as rapid ‘ōhi‘a death (ROD), caused by Ceratocystis lukuohia and Ceratocystis huliohia. Boring dust (frass) released when ambrosia beetles attack and colonize infected trees has been suspected as a transmission source. We sampled ambrosia beetle frass from six locations on Hawaiʻi Islan

A century of drought in Hawai‘i: Geospatial analysis and synthesis across hydrological, ecological, and socioeconomic scales

Drought is a prominent feature of Hawaiʻi’s climate. However, it has been over 30 years since the last comprehensive meteorological drought analysis, and recent drying trends have emphasized the need to better understand drought dynamics and multi-sector effects in Hawaiʻi. Here, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of past drought effects in Hawaiʻi that we integrate with geospatial analysis of d

Molt patterns, aging criteria, and molt-breeding seasonality of 8 native forest birds from the Island of Hawaiʻi

Much of our knowledge on the patterns and timing of breeding and molting come from studies of temperate region birds, yet tropical birds can have markedly different phenologies. The Hawaiian Islands support multiple endemic bird species that have evolved for millions of years in isolation to a tropical environment with minimal seasonality. We examined data from multiple studies (1994–2020) conduct

Status of landbirds in the National Park of American Samoa

The National Park of American Samoa (NPSA) was surveyed in 2011 and 2018 using point-transect distance sampling to estimate trends in landbird distribution, composition, population density, and abundance. Surveys were conducted within the Ta‘ū Unit and Tutuila Unit, each on separate islands of American Samoa. We detected a total of 14 species during surveys and there were sufficient detections of