Although there are many methods to determine ingestion and absorption of aquafeeds, none exist that are simple, cost-effective, and quantitative and that can mark fish with a long-lasting, visible indicator. In addition to aquafeed development, selective baits are needed that can be used for aquatic invasive species removal efforts, including for Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Bait incorporated with a pesticide would allow for selective removal of targeted species. A method to quickly assess multiple bait formulations was developed to expediate development for invasive species management. Incorporation of Sudan Black B (SBB) in aquafeeds at concentrations greater than 75 and 120 mg SBB/kg fish resulted in pigmented external soft tissues of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, respectively, 24 h after consumption. Visual confirmation of consumption was detectable in the gastrointestinal tract at all concentrations tested (≥10 mg SBB/kg) and quantifiable by absorbance measured at 601 nm from extracted SBB in tissues at concentrations less than those required for visual pigmentation. Although SBB was detectable in multiple tissues, fin and mandible tissues yielded the greatest accuracy in estimating consumption from extracted SBB. Compared with other tissues tested, liver tissue accumulated the highest level of SBB but had the greatest variability, while muscle tissue accumulated little detectable SBB. We used the SBB analytical method to compare consumption of six novel baits that were in the initial developmental stages to produce a palatable bait formulation designed to attract Grass Carp for management control. Overwhelming preference of a rapeseed bait formulation was confirmed using SBB as a tracer of consumption in the laboratory; however, use of SBB under natural conditions may be valuable for answering additional questions. Baits incorporated with SBB allowed for the rapid, simultaneous assessment of multiple formulations and could allow for future refinement of management baits, with results available as quickly as 24–72 h after application.
|Title||Quantitative method development to determine feed consumption using a dye|
|Authors||James J. Wamboldt, Justine Nelson, Linnea M Thomas, John Steiner, Jillian Hebert, Richard A. Erickson, Joel G. Putnam|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||North American Journal of Aquaculture|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center|