Larry Brown

Biography

    Larry R. Brown is a Research Biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center.  Dr. Brown has over 35 years experience working in California aquatic systems.  He is a recognized expert on the ecology of California fishes and has published on California fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates and benthic algae.  Dr. Brown is currently involved in studies of the effects of climate change on selected fish species in the Central Valley watershed and San Francisco Estuary, factors associated with declines in pelagic fish populations of  the San Francisco Estuary, and effects of hydrologic alteration on California stream systems.  In the course of his work, Dr. Brown has authored or coauthored over 80 scientific articles and reports.

 

Expertise

  • Aquatic ecology
  • Ecology of California fishes
  • Invasive species

 

Education

  • B.S., Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California.
  • B.S., Wildlife and Fisheries Biology, University of California, Davis, California.
  • M.S., Ecology, University of California, Davis, California.
  • Ph.D., Ecology, University of California, Davis, California.

 

Professional Societies

  • Sigma Xi
  • Ecological Society of America
  • American Fisheries Society
  • American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists
  • Estuarine Research Federation
  • California Estuarine Research Society
  • Society for Freshwater Science

 

Professional Service

  • 2018, Invited expert to Delta Independent Science Board Review of the Interagency Ecological Program, January 2018.

  • 2017, Invited expert to Sacramento Regional Sanitation Waste Water Treatment Plant Upgrade Conceptual Model Workshop, July 2017.

  • 2016-2017, Invited expert to Southern California Coastal Water Research Program for development of a California Wadeable Stream Biological Condition Gradient.

  • 2015-present, Thesis Committee for Angela Vance Akens, California State University, Sacramento, Major professor: Ronald Coleman.
  • 2014, Member of expert panel to Delta Science Program on Lower Food Web Dynamics in California’s Bay-Delta Ecosystem: Current understanding and future interactions in a changing landscape, February 2014.
  • 2012, Member of expert panel to the California State Water Resources Control Board on Ecosystem Changes and the Low Salinity Zone, September 2012.
  • 2011, Organized Symposium for 2011 American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting, San Francisco Estuary: A Dynamic Confluence of Fisheries, Policy, and Resource Management.
  • 2008-2010, Thesis Committee for Marissa Bauer, California State University, Chico. Major Professor: John Nishio.
  • 2006-2009, Co-editor of American Fisheries Society Symposium volume 72, Biology, Management, and Conservation of Lampreys in North America.
  • 2006-2007, Advisor to CALFED Post-doctoral Fellowship recipient Christa Woodley, University of California, Davis, CA. Other advisors: Peter Moyle and William Bennett.
  • 2005-2009, Dissertation Committee for Lenny F. Grimaldo, University of California, Davis, CA. Major Professor: Peter Moyle.
  • 2005-2007, Program Co-Chair, 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society
  • 2005-2006, Conference Co-chair for 4th CALFED Science Conference
  • 2004, Member of Scientific Review Panel, Lower Klamath River Science Conference, June 7-10.
  • 2003-2005, Co-Editor of American Fisheries Society Symposium volume, Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems
  • 2003-2004, Member of organizing committee for 3rd CALFED Science Conference
  • 2003-2004, Co-Editor of American Fisheries Society Symposium volume, Early Life History of Fishes in the San Francisco Estuary and Watershed
  • 2003, Organized Symposium for 2003 American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting, Effects of Urbanization on Aquatic Ecosystems
  • 2002-2004, Dissertation Committee for Joaquin B. Feliciano, University of California, Davis, CA. Major Professor: Peter Moyle.
  • 2002-2004, Dissertation Committee for Joe Merz, University of California, Davis, CA. Major Professor: Peter Moyle.
  • 2002-2003, Co-Program Chair for the 2nd CALFED Science Conference
  • 2002, Member of Scientific Review Panel, Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program of the California State Water Resources Board, May 21-22.
  • 2002-2004, Ph.D. Dissertation Committee for Robert Leidy, University of California, Davis, CA. Major Professor: Peter Moyle.
  • 2002, Ph.D. Orals Committee for Robert Leidy, University of California, Davis, CA. Major Professor: Peter Moyle.
  • 2002, Screening panel member for selection of candidates for National Marine Fisheries Service Recovery Teams for Central Valley salmonids (2002) and coho salmon (2002)
  • 2002-2003, President, Water Quality Section, American Fisheries Society
  • 2001-2002, President, California-Nevada Chapter, American Fisheries Society
  • 2000 and 2001, Selection Committee, EPA Science Achievement Award, Biology/Ecology
  • 2000, Co-Program Chair, for the 1st CALFED Science Conference
  • 1999 and 2000, Session Chair, Annual Meeting, California-Nevada Chapter, American Fisheries Society
  • Referee for various journals including: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Environmental Biology of Fishes, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, Copeia, and Journal of Fish Biology

 

 

 

Publications

Zimmerman, J.K.H. D.M. Carlisle, J.T. May, K.R. Klausmeyer, T.E. Grantham, L.R. Brown, and J.K. Howard. 2017. Patterns and magnitude of flow alteration in California, USA. Freshwater Biology. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fwb.13058/full

Dettinger, M., J. Anderson, M. Anderson, L.R. Brown, D. Cayan, and E. Maurer. 2016. Climate change and the Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 14(3). Available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2r71j15r

Brown, L.R., W. Kimmerer, J.L. Conrad, S. Lesmeister, and A. Mueller-Solger. 2016. Food webs of the Delta, Suisun Bay and Suisun Marsh: an update on current understanding and possibilities for management. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 14(3). Available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4mk5326r

Moyle, P.B., L.R. Brown, J.R. Durand, and J.A. Hobbs. 2016. Delta smelt: Life history and decline of a once abundant species in the San Francisco Estuary: San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 14(2). Available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/09k9f76s

Bever, A.J., M.L. MacWilliams, B. Herbold, L.R. Brown, and F.V. Feyrer. 2016. Linking hydrodynamic complexity to Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) distribution in the San Francisco Estuary, USA. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 14(1). Available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2x91q0fr

Ode, P., A.C. Rehn, R.D. Mazor, K.C. Schiff E.D. Stein, J.T. May, L.R. Brown, D.B. Herbst, D. Gillett, K. Lunde and C.P. Hawkins. 2016. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions. Freshwater Science 35:237-248.

Brown, L.R., L.M. Komoroske, R.W. Wagner, T. Morgan-King, J.T. May, R.E. Connon, and N.A. Fangue. 2016. Coupled downscaled climate models and ecophysiological metrics forecast habitat compression for an endangered estuarine fish: PlosONE 11(1):e0146724. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146724

May, J.T., L.R. Brown, A.C. Rehn, I.R. Waite, P.R. Ode, R.D. Mazor and K.C. Schiff. 2015. Correspondence of biological condition models of California streams at statewide and regional scales. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187:4086.

Feyrer, F., J.E. Cloern, L.R. Brown, M.A. Fish, K.A. Hieb, and R.D. Baxter. 2015. Estuarine fish communities respond to climate variability over both river and ocean basins. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12969

Feyrer, F., J. E. Cloern, L.R. Brown, M.A. Fish, K.A. Hieb, and R.D. Baxter. 2015. Estuarine Fish Communities Respond to Climate Variability over both River and Ocean Basins. Global Change Biology. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12969

Herbold, B., D.M. Baltz, L.R. Brown, R. Grossinger, W. Kimmerer, P. Lehman, P.B. Moyle,M. Nobriga, C.A. Simenstad, C. Wilcox. 2014. The role of tidal marsh restoration in fish management in the San Francisco Estuary. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 12(1). [Link]

Waite, I.R., J.G. Kennen, J.T. May, L.R. Brown, T.F. Cuffney, K.J. Jones, and J.L. Orlando. 2014. Stream macroinvertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics: addressing the issue of spatial scale. PLoS ONE 9(3): e90944. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090944

Meador, M.R. and L.R. Brown. 2014. Life history strategies of fish species and biodiversity in eastern USA streams. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98:663-677.

Brown, L.R., W.A. Bennett, R.W. Wagner, T. Morgan-King, N. Knowles, F. Feyrer, D.H. Schoellhamer, M.T. Stacey, M. Dettinger. 2013. Implications for Future Survival of Delta Smelt from Four Climate Change Scenarios for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Estuaries and Coasts 36:754-774.

Waite, I.R., Jonathan G. Kennen, Jason T. May, Larry R. Brown, Thomas F. Cuffney, Kimberly A. Jones and James L. Orlando. 2012. Comparison of stream invertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00632.x

Scholz, N.L., E. Fleishman, L. Brown, I. Werner, M.L. Johnson, M.L. Brooks, C.L. Mitchelmore, and D. Schlenk. In press. Pesticides and the decline of pelagic fishes in western North America’s largest estuarine ecosystem. Bioscience.

Brooks, M.L., E. Fleishman, L.R. Brown, P.W. Lehman, I. Werner, N. Scholz, C. Mitchelmore, J.R. Lovvorn, M.L. Johnson, D. Schlenk, S. van Drunick, J.I. Drever, D. M. Stoms, A. E. Parker, and R. Dugdale. 2012. Life Histories, salinity zones, and sublethal contributions of contaminants to pelagic fish declines illustrated with a case study of San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 35:603-621.

Cloern, J.E., N. Knowles, L.R. Brown, D. Cayan, M.D. Dettinger, T.L. Morgan, D.H. Schoellhamer, M.T. Stacey, M. van der Wegen, R.W. Wagner, A.D. Jassby. 2011. Projected Evolution of California’s San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change. PlosONE 6(9):e24465.

Wagner, R.W., M. Stacey, L.R. Brown, and M. Dettinger. 2011. Statistical models of temperature in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta under climate-change scenarios and ecological implications. Estuaries and Coasts 34:544-556.

Brown, L.R. and M.L. Bauer. 2010. Effects of hydrologic infrastructure on flow regimes of California’s Central Valley rivers: implications for fish populations. River Research and Applications 26:751-765. DOI: 10.1002/rra.1293

Thomson, J., W. Kimmerer, L. Brown, K. Newman, R. Mac Nally, W. Bennett, F. Feyrer, and E. Fleishman. 2010. Bayesian change-point analysis of abundance trends for pelagic fishes in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Ecological Applications 20:1431-1438. doi: 10.1890/09-0998

Mac Nally, R., J. Thomson, W. Kimmerer, F. Feyrer, K. Newman, A. Sih, W. Bennett, L. Brown, E. Fleishman, S. Culberson, and G. Castillo. 2010. An analysis of pelagic species decline in the upper San Francisco Estuary using Multivariate Autoregressive modelling (MAR). Ecological Applications 20:1417-1430. doi: 10.1890/09-1724

Waite, I.R., L.R. Brown, J.G. Kennen, J.T. May, T.F. Cuffney, J.L. Orlando, and K.A. Jones. 2010. Comparison of watershed disturbance predictive models for stream benthic macroinvertebrates for three distinct ecoregions in western US. Ecological Indicators 10:1125–1136.

Moyle, P.B., L.R. Brown, S.D. Chase, and R.M. Quiñones. 2009. Status and conservation of lampreys in California. Pages 279-292 in L.R. Brown, R.D. Chase, M. Mesa, R. Beamish, and P.B. Moyle, editors. Biology, Management, and Conservation of Lampreys in North America. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 72, Bethesda, Maryland.

Brown, L.R., T. Cuffney, J.F. Coles, A.H. Bell, J.T. May, F. Fitzpatrick, G. McMahon, J.  Steuer. 2009. Urban streams across the United States: lessons learned from studies in nine metropolitan areas. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28:1051-1069.

Brown, L.R., W. Kimmerer, and R. Brown. 2009. Managing water to protect fish: a review of California's environmental water account. Environmental Management 43:357-368.

Lucas, L.V., J.K. Thompson, and L.R. Brown. 2009.  Why are diverse relationships observed between phytoplankton biomass and transport time? Limnology and Oceanography 54:381-390.

Brown, L.R., M.B. Gregory, and J.T. May. 2009. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States. Urban Ecosystems 12:391-416.

Brown, L.R. and M.L. Bauer. 2009. Effects of hydrologic infrastructure on flow regimes of California's Central Valley rivers: Implications for fish populations. River Research and Applications: 10.1002/rra.1293 

Brown, L.R., J.T. May, and C.T. Hunsaker. 2008. Species composition and habitat associations of benthic algal assemblages in headwater streams of the Sierra Nevada, California. Western North American Naturalist 68:194-209

Brown, L.R. and D. Michniuk. 2007. Littoral fish assemblages of the alien-dominated Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 1980-1983 and 2001-2003. Estuaries and Coasts 30:186-200.

Brown, L.R. and J.T. May. 2007. Aquatic vertebrate assemblages of the upper Clear Creek watershed, California. Western North American Naturalist 67:439-451.

Domagalski, J., C. Lin, Y. Luo, Jie Kang, S. Wang, L.R. Brown, and M.D. Munn.  2007.  Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen.  Agricultural Water Management 94:43-53.

Brown, L.R., J. Thompson, K. Higgins, and L.V. Lucas. 2007. Population density, biomass, and age-class structure of an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in rivers of the lower San Joaquin River watershed, California. Western North American Naturalist 67:572-586.

Giddings, E., L.R. Brown, T. M. Short, and M.R. Meador. 2006. Relation of fish communities to environmental conditions in urban streams of the Wasatch Front, Utah. Western North American Naturalist 66:155-168.

Brown, L.R. and J.T. May. 2006. Variation in spring nearshore resident fish species composition and life histories in the lower Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed and Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science Vol. 4, Issue 1 (July 2006). Article 1.

http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/sfews/vol4/iss2/art1

Matern, S.A. and L.R. Brown.  2005.  Invaders eating invaders:  exploitation of novel alien prey by the shimofuri goby in the San Francisco Estuary, California.  Biological Invasions 7:497-507.

Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle.  2005.  Native fish communities of the Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed, California: a history of decline.  Pages 75-98 in F. Rinne, R. Hughes, and R. Calamusso, editors.  Fish Communities of Large Rivers of the United States. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Brown, L.R., C.A. Burton, and K. Belitz. 2005  Aquatic communities of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California.  Pages 263-290 in L. R. Brown, R. M. Hughes, R. Gray, and M. R. Meador, editors. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Brown, L.R., R.H. Gray, R.M. Hughes, and M.R. Meador. 2005. Introduction to effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems.  Pages 1-10 in L. R. Brown, R. M. Hughes, R. Gray, and M. R. Meador, editors. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Burton, C.A., L.R. Brown, and K. Belitz. 2005. Relations of water source and channel type with benthic macroinvertebrate and periphyton communities in the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California. Pages 239-262 in L. R. Brown, R. M. Hughes, R. Gray, and M. R. Meador, editors. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Dege, M. and L.R. Brown. 2004. Springtime Distribution and Abundance of Larval and Juvenile Fishes in the Upper San Francisco Estuary. Pages 49-66 in F. Feyrer, L.R. Brown, R. Brown, and J. Orsii, editors.  Early Life History of Fishes in the San Francisco Estuary and Watershed. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Meador, M.R., L.R. Brown, and T.M. Short.  2003.  Relations between introduced fish and environmental conditions at large geographic scales.  Ecological Indicators 3:81-92.

Brown, L.R.  2003.  An introduction to the San Francisco Estuary tidal wetlands  restoration series.  In: L.R. Brown, editor.  Issues in San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration.   San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science. Vol. 1, Issue 1, Article 1.

http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/sfews/vol1/iss1/art1.

Brown, L.R.  2003.  Will tidal wetland restoration enhance populations of native fishes?  In: L.R. Brown, editor.  Issues in San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration.   San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science. Vol. 1, Issue 1, Article 2.

http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/sfews/vol1/iss1/art2.

Brown, L.R.  2003.  Potential effects of organic carbon production on ecosystems and drinking water.  In: L.R. Brown, editor.  Issues in San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration.   San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science. Vol. 1, Issue 1, Article 3.

http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/sfews/vol1/iss1/art3.

Brown, L.R.  2003.  A summary of the tidal wetlands restoration series.  In: L.R. Brown, editor.  Issues in San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration.   San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science. Vol. 1, Issue 1, Article 6.

http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/sfews/vol1/iss1/art6.

May, J.T. and L.R. Brown.  2002.  Fish community structure in relation to environmental variation within the Sacramento River Basin and implications for streams of the Central Valley, California.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 63:373-388.

Brown, L.R. and T.J. Ford.  2002.  Effects of flow on the fish communities of a regulated California river: implications for managing native fishes.  River Research and Applications 18:331-342.

Ford, T.J. and L.R. Brown.  2001.  Distribution and Abundance of Chinook Salmon and Resident Fishes of the Lower Tuolumne River, California.  Pp. 253-304, in, R. Brown (ed.),  Fish Bulletin 179: Contributions to the Biology of Central Valley Salmonids.  California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA.

Leland, H.V., L.R. Brown, and D.K. Mueller.  2001.  Distribution of algae in the San Joaquin River, California, in relation to nutrient supply, salinity, and other environmental factors.  Freshwater Biology 46:1139-1167.

Brown, L.R.  2000.  Fish communities and their associations with environmental variables, lower San Joaquin River drainage, California.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 57:251-269.

Brown, L.R. and J.T. May.  2000.  Macroinvertebrate assemblages on woody debris and their relations with environmental variables in the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin river drainages, California.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 64:311-329.

Brown, L.R., C.R. Kratzer, and N.M. Dubrovsky.  1999.  Integrating chemical, water quality, habitat, and fish assemblage data from the San Joaquin River drainage, California.  Pp. 25-62, in, K.M. Scow, G.E. Fogg, D.E. Hinton, and M.L. Johnson (eds.), Integrated assessment of ecosystem health, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Brown, L.R., A.M. Brasher, B.C. Harvey, and M. Matthews.  1999.  Success and failure of invading species in stream systems: case studies from California and Hawaii.  Pp. 415-430, in, R. Claudi and J. Leach (eds.), Non-indigenous freshwater organisms in North America: their biology and impact, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Brown, L.R.  1997.  Water-quality assessment of the San Joaquin-Tulare basins, California: Analysis of available information on aquatic biology, through 1992.  U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 2471.

Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle.  1997.  Invading species in the Eel River, California: successes, failures, and relationships with resident species.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 49:271-291.

Brown, L.R.  1997.  Concentrations of chlorinated organic compounds in biota in relation to concentrations in bed sediment in streams of the San Joaquin Valley, California.  Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 33:357-368.

Periera, W.E., Domagalski, J.L., Hostettler, F.D., Brown, L.R., and Rapp, J.B.  1996.  Occurrence and accumulation of pesticides and organic contaminants in river sediment, water and clam tissues from the San Joaquin River and tributaries, California.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:172-180.

Brown, L.R. and A. Brasher.  1995.  Effects of predation by Sacramento squawfish (Ptychocheilus grandis) on habitat choice of California roach (Lavinia symmetricus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in artificial streams.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:1639-1646.

Brown, L.R., P.B. Moyle, and R.M. Yoshiyama. 1994.  Status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in California.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14:237-261.

Brown, L.R., S.A. Matern, and P.B. Moyle. 1995.  Comparative ecology of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) and coastrange sculpin (C. aleuticus) in the Eel River drainage, California.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 42:329-343.

Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle. 1993.  Distribution, ecology, and status of the fishes of the San Joaquin River drainage, California.  California Fish and Game 79:96-114.

Brown, L.R., P.B. Moyle and W.A. Bennett.  1992.  Morphological variation among populations of California roach, Lavinia symmetricus: implications for conservation strategies.  Biological Conservation 62:1-10.

Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle.  1992.  Native fishes of the San Joaquin drainage: status of a remnant fauna.  Pp. 89-98, in, D.F. Williams, T.A. Rado, and S. Byrne, (eds.), Proceedings of the conference on endangered and sensitive species of the San Joaquin Valley, California.  California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California.

Brown, L.R.  1991.  Differences in habitat choice and behavior among three species of sculpins (Cottus), in artificial stream channels.  Copeia 1991:810-819.

Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle.  1991.  Changes in habitat and microhabitat use of an assemblage of stream fishes in response to predation by Sacramento squawfish (Ptychocheilus grandis).  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:849-856.

Baltz, D.M., B. Vondracek, L.R. Brown, and P.B. Moyle.  1991.  Seasonal changes in microhabitat selection by rainbow trout in a small stream. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120:166-176.

Brown, L.R.  1990.  Age, growth, feeding and behavior of Sacramento squawfish (Ptychocheilus grandis) in Bear Creek, Colusa County, California.  The Southwestern Naturalist 35:249-260.

Brown, L.R.  1989.  Temperature preferences and oxygen consumption of three species of sculpin (Cottus) from the Pit River drainage, California.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 26:223-236.

Vondracek, B., D.M. Baltz, L.R. Brown and P.B. Moyle.  1989.  Spatial, seasonal and diel distribution of fishes in a California reservoir dominated by native fishes.  Fisheries Research 7:31-53.

Baltz, D.M., B. Vondracek, L.R. Brown and P.B. Moyle.  1987.  Influence of temperature on microhabitat choice by fishes in a California stream.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116:12-20.

Vondracek, B., L.R. Brown and J.J. Cech, Jr.  1982.  Comparison of age, growth and feeding of the Tahoe sucker from Sierra Nevada streams and a reservoir.  California Fish and Game 68:36-46.

Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle.  1981.  The impact of squawfish on salmonid populations: a review. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 1:104-111.