Through the Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Act of 2019 (H.R. 2157), the USGS received Supplemental funding to support recovery and rebuilding activities in the wake of the 2018 Kīlauea volcano eruption. As part of eruption response bolstering, HVO will harden its capability to detect gases from magma and characterize hazards.
HVO will restore and harden its network of real-time monitoring instruments at the summit and in critical areas along the rift zones to support early detection of magma movement and more accurate and timely characterization of hazards to Island of Hawai‘i communities and Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Instruments lost in the eruption will be replaced, other parts of the network will be modernized, and new instruments will be added. Data from a suite of instruments measuring multiple parameters are required to provide the best warnings and forecasts of eruptive activity. Seismometers, GPS/GNSS, tiltmeters, gas sensors, and gravimeters are needed to assess the state of the volcano. Thermal and visual camera systems will enable HVO to monitor surface activity at the summit and lower East Rift Zone and neighboring Mauna Loa. HVO will restore and improve its capability to detect gases coming from magma rising into the system.
Harden HVO capability to detect gases from magma and characterize hazards.
Ongoing rehabilitation and upgrading of the Flyspec array (10 stations of upward-looking UV spectrometers).
Worked with IT to setup raw data transfer to gas server (vs processed results only); this is a preliminary step in working with Christoph Kern at CVO to upgrade the processing to DOAS (vs FLYSPEC) spectral analysis methodology and possible future conversion of array to portable/reconfigurable vs static/permanent. 4 of 10 stations have new scripts running to transfer raw data; network load is being monitored. Additional stations will have raw data script added pending other station repairs being completed first.
10 of 10 stations have been outfitted with new UV windows. Previous windows had been damaged/etched by years of high SO2 emissions and significant ash deposition during the 2018 events. A new design for the window fittings is in progress and the window fittings will soon be replaced as well.
2 of 10 stations converted to onboard single-board computers had preliminary comms/operability testing
Spectrometers were reassessed for ongoing proper function; 1 of 10 spectrometers was determined to have suffered degradation in light sensitivity over time; it was sent to the manufacturer and has been repaired.
3 of 10 stations have had their initial/aging power supply systems upgraded to modern HVO power setups (“flyaway” power stations), aided by the return of summer gas assistant, Mike Cappos, who was unable to travel during the summer of 2020 due to covid. ~2 additional “flyaway” setups were also built for later use.
1 other station had its power system repaired (not full “flyaway” upgrade”) and batteries replaced