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Salinity and total dissolved solids measurements for natural waters: An overview and a new salinity method based on specific conductance and water type

The total concentration of dissolved constituents in water is routinely quantified by measurements of salinity or total dissolved solids (TDS). However, salinity and TDS are operationally defined by their analytical methods and are not equivalent for most waters. Furthermore, multiple methods are available to determine salinity and TDS, and these methods have inherent differences. TDS is defined a
R. Blaine McCleskey, Charles A. Cravotta, Matthew P. Miller, Fred D. Tillman, Paul Stackelberg, Katherine J. Knierim, Daniel Wise

Heavy: Software for forward-modeling gravity change from MODFLOW output

Fortran software, named Heavy, was developed to simulate gravity change due to water-storage change in MODFLOW groundwater models. Heavy is compatible with MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-NWT models using the layer-property flow or upstream weighting packages. All of the necessary information for the gravity calculation—the geometry of the model cells, the storage coefficient, and head change—is present
Jeffrey Kennedy, Joshua Larsen

Measuring basin-scale aquifer storage change and mapping specific yield in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, with repeat microgravity data

Study RegionThe groundwater basin underlying the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.Study FocusThe study focuses on changes in groundwater storage and how those changes relate to groundwater-level changes. Groundwater storage change was measured using repeat microgravity at 35 stations from 2016 to 2021. Usually, storage is monitored by converting groundwater-level changes to storage changes usi
Jeffrey Kennedy, Meghan T. Bell

Aquifer storage change, 2018–2021, in the Big Chino Subbasin, Yavapai County, Arizona

This report updates groundwater-storage and groundwater-level trends presented in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2019–5060, in the Big Chino Subbasin, Yavapai County, Arizona. This earlier geophysical investigation of groundwater-storage change in the Big Chino Subbasin was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Prescott, the Town o
Jeffrey R. Kennedy

Determining seasonal recharge, storage changes, and specific yield using repeat microgravity and water-level measurements in the Mesilla Basin alluvial aquifer, New Mexico, 2016–2018

Increasing water demand and multi-year drought conditions within the Mesilla/Conejos-Médanos Basin near the New Mexico-Texas- Chihuahua border have resulted in diminished surface-water supplies and increased groundwater withdrawals. To better understand recharge to the shallow aquifer, the spatial and temporal groundwater storage changes, and the variability of specific yield (Sy) in the aquifer,
Andrew J. Robertson, Jeffrey Kennedy, Libby M. Kahler, Meghan T. Bell, Erek H. Fuchs, Alex Rinehart, Irene Fernald

A review of current capabilities and science gaps in water supply data, modeling, and trends for water availability assessments in the Upper Colorado River Basin

The Colorado River is a critical water resource in the southwestern United States, supplying drinking water for 40 million people in the region and water for irrigation of 2.2 million hectares of land. Extended drought in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) and the prospect of a warmer climate in the future pose water availability challenges for those charged with managing the river. Limited wat
Fred D. Tillman, Natalie K. Day, Matthew P. Miller, Olivia L. Miller, Christine Rumsey, Daniel Wise, Patrick Cullen Longley, Morgan C. McDonnell

Characterization of the Sevier/Toroweap Fault Zone in Kane County, Utah, using controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surveys

The Sevier/Toroweap Fault Zone is a major north-south-striking fault located in northern Arizona and southwestern Utah. In partnership with the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted two geophysical controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surveys that transected the Sevier/Toroweap Fault Zone at Clay Flat, Utah, a potential pull-apart basin, west of a site of
Casey J.R. Jones, Michael J. Robinson, Jamie P. Macy

Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2018–2019

The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Water availability is an important issue in the Black Mesa area because of the arid climate, past industrial water use, and continued water requirements for municipal use by a growing population. Precipitation in the area typically ranges from less
Jon P. Mason

Occurrence and transport of aerially applied herbicides to control invasive buffelgrass in Rincon Mountain District, Saguaro National Park, Arizona

Resource managers of the Saguaro National Park are concerned about the spread of the invasive species Cenchrus ciliaris L. (buffelgrass) and the threat it poses to desert ecosystems. Glyphosate-based herbicide treatments seem to be one of a few viable options to control the spread of buffelgrass in the mountainous terrain of the National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey completed a 4-year study wi
Nicholas V. Paretti, Bruce Gungle

Can we accurately estimate sediment budgets on Mars?

Sediment budgets are fundamentally important for planetary science. However, only one primary method, based on remote sensing, is currently available for determining extraterrestrial sediment budgets. For determining sediment budgets on Earth, both in-situ and remote sensing methods are available. Despite the widespread use of the two methods, there has been surprisingly little research on how wel
Joel B. Sankey, Alan Kasprak, Matthew Chojnacki, Timothy N. Titus, Joshua Caster, Geoffrey DeBenedetto

Addressing stakeholder science needs for integrated drought science in the Colorado River Basin

Stakeholders need scientific data, analysis, and predictions of how drought the will impact the Colorado River Basin in a format that is continuously updated, intuitive, and easily accessible. The Colorado River Basin Actionable and Strategic Integrated Science and Technology Pilot Project was formed to demonstrate the effectiveness of addressing complex problems through stakeholder involvement an
Anne C. Tillery, Sally F. House, Rebecca J. Frus, Sharon Qi, Daniel Jones, William Andrews

Gravity surveys for estimating possible width of enhanced porosity zones across structures on the Coconino Plateau, Coconino County, north-central Arizona

The U.S. Geological Survey completed gravity transects in 2015, 2018, and 2019 over four features: the Bright Angel Fault, Bright Angel Monocline, Tusayan Graben, and Redlands Ranch Fault Zone in the Coconino Plateau, Coconino County, Arizona, to determine if the existence and width of high porosity (low density) zones could be inferred from the resulting gravity contrasts, which could be used to
Libby M. Wildermuth