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The CRU program remains very productive and maintains a bright future. One of the things contributing to that bright future is a $5.6 million increase in our most recent Congressional appropriations. This amount will help us meet longstanding programmatic needs, such as filling all the vacancies in our scientific workforce and providing much-needed upgrades to our research equipment.

CRU Science
Filter Total Items: 24
Date published: June 15, 2020
Status: Active

Fish and Climate Change Database (FiCli) Provides Freshwater Fisheries Managers With an Important Climate Adaptation Tool

Inland fishes are important to communities worldwide and provide many ecosystem services, such as recreational opportunities, subsistence fishing, and commercial income. To support climate adaptation for fisheries management across the globe, the USGS Alaska, Missouri, and North Carolina Cooperative Research Units are developing an interactive database, ...

Date published: May 11, 2020
Status: Active

Engaging Hunters in Selecting Duck Season Dates Using Decision Science

The USGS New York Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) have been working together on a decision making process for setting duck season dates in New York.

Date published: April 13, 2020
Status: Active

Citizen Science Helps to Inform Ornamental Fishery Decisions in Hawaii

The commercial collection of marine ornamental fishes from coral reefs for the aquarium trade is one of the most controversial fisheries in Hawai'i. Most of the controversy relates to whether the fishery is being managed sustainably. The Hawai'i Cooperative Fishery Research Unit is assessing the impact of the marine...

Date published: March 9, 2020
Status: Active

New Habitat Suitability Maps for At-Risk Herpetofauna Species in the Longleaf Pine Ecosystem

Five at-risk species of herpetofauna – the gopher tortoise, gopher frog, striped newt, southern hognose snake, and Florida pine snake – have been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are the subjects of conservation planning efforts of federal, state, and other partners in the Southeast.

Date published: February 19, 2020
Status: Active

2019 CRU Year in Review Story Map

Established in 1935, the Cooperative Research Units Program is a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey, Universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, the Wildlife Management Institute, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Date published: February 10, 2020
Status: Active

Oxbow Restoration in Iowa with an Emphasis on Topeka Shiner

The Iowa Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit is leading research on two projects focusing on oxbow restorations and the federally endangered Topeka shiner. These projects have provided insight into the habitat preferences and fish assemblage associations of Topeka shiner in oxbows, compared the occurrence and abundance of the species in restored and unrestored oxbows.

Date published: December 16, 2019
Status: Active

Yellowstone's Migrating Bison Manipulate Springtime Green-Up

The USGS Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit coauthored a paper titled “Migrating bison engineer the green wave” published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a leading journal publishing new discoveries across many disciplines. 

Date published: November 11, 2019
Status: Active

Species Status Assessments to Support Endangered Species Decision Making

The USGS Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the USGS Leetown Science Center are partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to re-envision the way science supports endangered species decision making. The USFWS is required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to consider the health of species at risk of extinction.

Date published: October 14, 2019
Status: Active

https://wildlifemanagement.institute/brief/october-2019/kirtlands-warbler-delisted

On October 8, 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that the Kirtland’s warbler, one of the initial species added to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), had recovered enough to be removed from protection under the ESA. The songbird that nests only in the young jack pine forests in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Ontario...

Date published: September 16, 2019
Status: Active

App Allows Citizen Scientists to Contribute to Monarch Butterfly Research

Researchers with the U.S. Geological Survey Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (Maine CRU) have developed a model that predicts areas that have a high suitability for monarch butterflies for roosting during their fall migration to Mexico. 

Date published: August 12, 2019
Status: Active

Scientists Without Borders - Range-Wide Conservation for a Freshwater Mussel at Risk

Despite repeatedly being referenced as uncharismatic, few organisms can bring together 21 different agencies, drawing on collaborations from 14 states – but that is just what is happening with a freshwater mussel in the Northeast.

Date published: July 31, 2019
Status: Active

USGS Alaska Science Center Wildlife Tracking Data Collection

Understanding the short- and long-distance movements of wildlife is critical for a wide variety of ecological research questions and management decisions. Since the mid-1980s, the USGS Alaska Science Center has used information from telemetry devices on wildlife species to determine locations of animals throughout their annual cycles, understand patterns of habitat use, quantify time spent on...

The Cooperative Research Units Program conducts research on a wide range of disciplines related to fish, wildlife, and natural resource management. Our 40 Units collectively conduct research on virtually every type of North American ecological community. 

Data and Tools Technical Publications
Filter Total Items: 105
Date published: November 9, 2020

Winter ranges of mule deer in the South Tuscarora Mountains, Nevada

Mule deer in the South Tuscarora herd are part of the larger “Area 6” deer population that reside in the southern and eastern portion of this big game Management Area (MA 6). The winter range for this sub population is located along the western slopes of the Tuscarora Mountains and the Dunphy Hills. The spring migration route for this deer herd traverses north along the toe

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Routes of Mule Deer in Atlantic Rim South Population in Wyoming

Mule deer in the Atlantic Rim South population are part of the Baggs herd unit that is managed for approximately 19,000 animals. These mule deer winter in the sagebrush canyons and basins north and west of Baggs, Wyoming and migrate north and east 20–50 mi (32–80 km) to various summer ranges (fig. 23). Many of these deer must navigate coal-bed methane developments situ

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Routes of Mule Deer in the South Wind River Herd in Wyoming

Mule deer within the South Wind River herd make short- and medium-distance migrations from the foothills near Lander, Wyoming, into the Wind River Range and around its southern flanks (fig. 31). The longest migration in this herd is a 75-mile (121-km) route originating south of Lander near Twin Creek. Deer following this long-distance route traverse the southern edge of the Wind River

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Routes of Pronghorn in the South of Interstate 40 Herd in Arizona

Interest in the movement of pronghorn south of Arizona’s Interstate 40 (I-40) began when telemetry data from 1999 – 2004 showed seasonal round-trip movements upwards of 100 miles. In 2018, high-resolution GPS location data confirmed persistence of this remarkable pronghorn migration. This herd resides primarily in Game Management Unit 8, which had a population estimate of

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration routes of mule deer in the Pequop Mountains, Nevada

The Area 7 mule deer population is one of the state’s largest deer herds with an estimated population of about 11,000 in 2019. This deer herd is highly important to Nevada from an economic and ecological perspective. It’s one of the longest distance deer migrations in the state of Nevada with some animals known to migrate over 120 miles during a single migration. A subset of th

Date published: November 9, 2020

Wyoming Game and Fish Department Designated Migration Corridor of mule deer in the Baggs Herd, Wyoming

The Baggs Mule Deer Corridor was officially designated by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WGFD) in 2018 (fig. 24). The Baggs Herd is managed for approximately 19,000 animals, and the corridor is based on two wintering deer populations: a northern and southern segment. Animals in the north segment occupy a relatively small winter range along a pinyon-juniper ridge that runs alo

Date published: November 9, 2020

Ungulate Migrations of the Western United States, Volume 1

Here we provide the data archive for the publication Ungulate Migrations of the Western United States (Kauffman et al. 2020). This includes the collection of GIS/spatial data that are made available in the report. A few exceptions to data inclusions: Idaho data, routes from Grand Teton National Park deer in the Red Desert herd in Wyoming. The Ungulate Migrations of the Western United St

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Routes of Mule Deer in the Red Desert Population in Wyoming

Mule deer within the Red Desert population, part of the larger Sublette herd, make the longest ungulate migration ever recorded in the lower 48 states (fig. 33). Here, mule deer travel an average one-way distance of 150 mi (241 km) from the Red Desert in the south to the Gros Ventre Range and Teton Range in the north. This migration originates in the desert sagebrush basins of the R

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Stopovers of Mule Deer in the Platte Valley Herd in Wyoming

The Platte Valley Herd Corridor was designated by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department in 2018 (fig. 30). The Platte Valley herd contains approximately 11,000 mule deer. The corridor is based on two wintering populations, including a south segment from Saratoga, Wyoming, to the Colorado State line, and a north segment from Saratoga to the Dana Ridge area north of I-80. Winter ranges

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Routes of Elk in the Jackson Herd in Wyoming

Elk within the Jackson herd have been the focus of management for over a century. The herd, which numbers between 9,000 -13,000, winters in Jackson Hole. Most of the herd winters in the sagebrush basins and irrigated fields of the National Elk Refuge, with less than a quarter of the herd wintering in the Gros Ventre drainage to the east. Migrating animals travel an average one-way dista

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration Stopovers of Mule Deer in the Paunsaugunt Plateau Herd in Utah

The Paunsaugunt Plateau in southern Utah is home to a prolific mule deer herd numbering around 5,200 individuals in 2019. In early October, these mule deer begin their migration from the Plateau traveling south distances up to 78 miles to winter range in the Buckskin Mountains near the Utah-Arizona border. Approximately 20-30% of the Paunsaugunt Plateau herd reside in northern Arizona durin...

Date published: November 9, 2020

Migration corridors of mule deer in the Sheep Creek Range, Nevada

Mule deer in the Sheep Creek sub herd are part of the larger Area 6 herd that occupies portions of Elko, Lander, and Eureka counties. The primary winter range of this population is located along the eastern flank of the Sheep Creek Range and the west side of Boulder Valley. Most deer migrate approximately 30 miles from winter ranges in upper Boulder Creek and Antelope Creek drainages to summe...

Filter Total Items: 2,790
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Year Published: 2020

Managing state lands for wildlife

State-owned lands are a vital component of state fish and wildlife management programs because they contain valuable habitats for a diversity of wild species and often provide important public access. The Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (AFWA 2017) reported state agencies manage or administer approximately 188 million hectares of land,...

Ryder, Thomas; Organ, John F.

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Year Published: 2020

Effects of climate and land-use changes on fish catches across lakes at a global scale

Globally, our knowledge on lake fisheries is still limited despite their importance to food security and livelihoods. Here we show that fish catches can respond either positively or negatively to climate and land-use changes, by analyzing time-series data (1970–2014) for 31 lakes across five continents. We find that effects of a climate or land-...

Kao, Y.; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David; Cowx, I. G.; Qian, S. S.; Anneville, O.; Beard, T. Douglas; Brinker, A.; Britton, J. R.; Chura-Crusz, R.; Gownaris, N. J.; Jackson, J. R.; Kangur, K.; Kolding, J.; Lukin, A.A.; Lynch, Abigail; Mercado-Silva, N.; Moncayo-Estrada, R.; Njaya, F. J.; Ostrovsky, I.; Rudstam, L.G.; Sandström, A. L. E.; Sato, Y.; Siguayro-Mamani, Humberto; Thorpe, A.; van Zwieten, P. A. M.; Volta, P.; Wang, Y. Q.; Weiperth, A.; Weyl, O. L. F.; Young, Joelle D.

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Year Published: 2020

Decision implementation and the double-loop process in adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay

No abstract available.

McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Lyons, James E.

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Year Published: 2020

FiCli, the Fish and Climate Change Database, informs climate adaptation and management for freshwater fishes

Inland fishes provide important ecosystem services to communities worldwide and are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Fish respond to climate change in diverse and nuanced ways, which creates challenges for practitioners of fish conservation, climate change adaptation, and management. Although climate change is known to...

Krabbenhoft, Trevor J. ; Myers, Bonnie Jean Evaline; Wong, Jesse; Chu, Cindy ; Tingley, Ralph W. III; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Lynch, Abigail

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Year Published: 2020

InFish: A professional network to promote global conservation and responsible use of inland fish

Inland fishes and fisheries make substantial contributions to individuals, society, and the environment in a changing global landscape that includes climate, water allocations, and societal changes. However, current limitations to valuing the services provided by inland fish and their fisheries often leaves them out of key decision‐making...

Lynch, Abigail J; Bartley, Devin M.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bunnell, David; Cooke, Steve J.; Cowx, Ian. G.; Funge-Smith, Simon; Paukert, Craig; Rogers, Mark W.; Taylor, William W.

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Year Published: 2020

Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program—2019 year in review

Acting Chief’s MessageDear Cooperators:Members of the Cooperative Research Units are pleased to provide you with the “2019 Year in Review” report for the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRUs). You will first note that this report looks a little different than those published in the past few years, as we opted for a shorter, more...

Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
Thompson, J.D., Dennerline, D.E., and Childs, D.E., 2020, Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program—2019 year in review: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1463, 22 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1463.

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Year Published: 2020

Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program—2019 year in review postcard

Acting Chief’s MessageDear friends,I invite you to take a look at U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1463, “Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2019 Year in Review,” now available at https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1463. In this report, you will find details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program concerning...

Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
Thompson, J.D., Dennerline, D.E., and Childs, D.E., 2020, Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program—2019 year in review postcard: U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 195, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/gip195.

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Year Published: 2020

Non-crop habitat use by wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in a mixed-use agricultural landscape

Homogeneous, agriculturally intense landscapes have abundant records of pollinator community research, though similar studies in the forest-dominated, heterogeneous mixed-use landscape that dominates the northeastern United States are sparse. Trends of landscape effects on wild bees are consistent across homogeneous agricultural landscapes,...

Du Clos, Brianne; Loftin, Cyndy; Drummond, Francis A.

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Year Published: 2020

Longitudinal distribution of uncommon fishes in a species-rich basin

The spatial organization of fishes in a river system was investigated to evaluate the longitudinal distribution of uncommon species. It was anticipated that overall richness of the fish community would increase in a downstream direction together with habitat extent, but that more uncommon species would occur upstream owing to greater heterogeneity...

Miranda, Leandro E.; Killgore, K.J.

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Year Published: 2020

Biotic interactions help explain variation in elevational range limits of birds among Bornean mountains

AimPhysiological tolerances and biotic interactions along habitat gradients are thought to influence species occurrence. Distributional differences caused by such forces are particularly noticeable on tropical mountains, where high species turnover along elevational gradients occurs over relatively short distances and elevational distributions of...

Burner, Ryan C.; Boyce, Andy J.; Bernasconi, David; Styring, Alison R.; Shakya, Subir B.; Boer, Chandradewana; Rahman, Mustafa Abdul; Martin, Thomas E.; Sheldon, Frederick H.

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Year Published: 2020

Coldwater periods in warmwater streams: Microhabitat shifts from autumn to winter by Smallmouth Bass

Seasonal and life stage variation in microhabitat use is an important driver of fish survival and bioenergetics, but knowledge of microhabitat selection during colder periods is generally lacking in warmwater streams. Our objective was to examine changes in microhabitat selection by age‐0 (TL ≤ 85 mm) and age‐1+ (TL > ...

Wolf, S.L.; Mollenhauer, R.; Brewer, Shannon K.

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Year Published: 2020

Latitudinal variation in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) body mass: A test of Bergmann’s Rule

The relationship between body size and latitude have been the focus of dozens of studies across many species. However, results of testing Bergmann’s Rule – that organisms in colder climates or at higher latitudes possess larger body sizes – have been inconsistent across studies. We investigated whether snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) follow the...

Gigliotti, Laura C. ; Berg, Nathan D. ; Boonstra, Rudy ; Cleveland, Shawn M.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Gese, Eric M. ; Ivan, Jacob S. ; Kielland, Knut; Krebs, Charles J. ; Kumar, Alexander V. ; Mills, L. Scott; Pauli, Jonathan N.; Underwood, H. Brian; Wilson, Evan; Sheriff, M.J.

Under the guidelines of the Cooperative Research Agreement, CRU is required to communicate with funders, cooperators, stakeholders, and the public. CRU maintains outreach pathways and participation among state, federal, university, and private researchers.

Filter Total Items: 44
 Assessing the impact of nutrient enrichment in the Henry's Fork Headwaters
July 9, 2019

Assessing the impact of nutrient enrichment in Utah

Rivers in the western U.S. rivers are experiencing changes in nutrient loading because of rapid urban development, but the effects of changing nutrient loading on the structure and function of stream ecosystems, especially fish habitat, are not fully understood. The Henry’s Fork of the Snake River in east Idaho is a wide, shallow, clear, spring-fed river whose fish habitat

...
A brook floater filter feeding as it is anchored into the sediment of a stream bottom.
July 3, 2019

Brook floater mussel

A brook floater filter feeding as it is anchored into the sediment of a stream bottom. Habitat loss is a long-recognized problem for many endangered species, and the brook floater is no exception. In-stream alterations that change flow and alter sediment loads can affect downstream locations where freshwater mussels live. Further, human encroachment from development, run-

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Shovelnose sturgeon
June 3, 2019

Shovelnose sturgeon

Shovelnose sturegon. Understanding the

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Elk fitted with global positioning system tracking collar
June 3, 2019

Elk fitted with global positioning system tracking collar

Matt Kauffman, Unit Leader, USGS Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, second from left, works with Wyoming Game and Fish Department and University of Wyoming collaborators to release an elk fitted with a global positioning system (GPS) tracking collar.

Green sweat bee visits a blackberry flower
May 29, 2019

Green sweat bee visits a blackberry flower

Fruits of Her Labor: the flower on the left has been pollinated and the fruit is developing, but the flower on the right is still being pollinated, highlighting the importance of bees to humanity's food resources. 

Andrena spp. seemingly getting a piggyback ride from a bumblebee (Bombus spp.)
May 29, 2019

Bee landing zone

Andrena spp. seemingly getting a piggyback ride from a bumblebee (Bombus spp.). Researcher was holding the flower on private land in Macon County.

Halictus ligatus female on an oxeye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum).
May 29, 2019

Halictus ligatus female on an oxeye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)

The center of the composite flower looks like a "landing zone" and has evolved to guide pollinators to its nectar/pollen.

Trail camera field work in Arizona
April 12, 2019

Trail camera field work in Arizona

Ongoing camera monitoring efforts in Southern Arizona to monitor wildlife for the goal of detecting endangered jaguars and ocelots have covered 20 mountain ranges, off and on, from 2012 to 2019.  Currently monitoring 12 Southern Arizona mountain ranges, this project is being conducted exclusively in the field by citizen science volunteers at the University of Arizona under

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Trail camera field work in Arizona
April 12, 2019

Trail camera field work in Arizona

Ongoing camera monitoring efforts in Southern Arizona to monitor wildlife for the goal of detecting endangered jaguars and ocelots have covered 20 mountain ranges, off and on, from 2012 to 2019.  Currently monitoring 12 Southern Arizona mountain ranges, this project is being conducted exclusively in the field by citizen science volunteers at the University of Arizona under

...
Trail camera field work in Arizona
April 12, 2019

Trail camera field work in Arizona

Ongoing camera monitoring efforts in Southern Arizona to monitor wildlife for the goal of detecting endangered jaguars and ocelots have covered 20 mountain ranges, off and on, from 2012 to 2019.  Currently monitoring 12 Southern Arizona mountain ranges, this project is being conducted exclusively in the field by citizen science volunteers at the University of Arizona under

...
 Assessing fish habitat and population dynamics of fisheries resources at Kaloko Fishpond
July 29, 2018

Assessing fish habitat and population dynamics of fisheries resources

Throughout Hawaii, fishponds are considered by their local communities as important cultural touchstones, a source of local, sustainably produced food, and an important component to the development of community-based management for nearshore fisheries. Within Kaloko Honokōhau National Historic Park, the restoration of Kaloko Fishpond for traditional aquaculture management

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Assessing the Functional Equivalency of Hawaiian fishponds
July 29, 2018

Assessing the Functional Equivalency of Hawaiian fishponds

Hawaiian fishponds are important cultural and economic resources for native Hawaiians as they are an important component of a sophisticated, integrated food production system. However, changing demographics and systems of land ownership result in declines in the use and upkeep of Hawaiian fishponds throughout the 19th century. The cultural value of Hawaiian fishponds has

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Filter Total Items: 23
Date published: November 17, 2016

Wild Turkey Talk

A group of turkeys is referred to as either a rafter or a gang.  So this Thanksgiving, when celebrating with your own gang, remember the turkey as more than just the main course, but, as Benjamin Franklin said so many years ago, as a noble fowl of American tradition.

Date published: July 31, 2016

Hot off the Press! Great Balls of Fire!

The USGS Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit in partnership with the Nebraska Intelligent MoBile Unmanned Systems Lab (NIMBUS) and the Applied Complex Adaptive Systems Lab have designed a drone prototype that drops balls filled with combustible material that ignites fire as part of prescribed fire management.

Date published: May 6, 2016

Happy Mother’s Day to Moms of All Species

USGS wishes to honor all mothers, of all species. Many of our research findings have and are shedding light on the lives of non-human moms.  

Date published: March 16, 2016

Shorebirds Ignore Aircraft, But Pay Attention to People, Off-road Vehicles

The American oystercatchers studied on Cape Lookout National Seashore in North Carolina were disturbed more by pedestrians and off-road vehicles passing their nests than the U.S. military aircraft flying overhead.

Date published: December 10, 2015

Continued Decline of the Northern Spotted Owl Associated with the Invasive Barred Owl, Habitat Loss, and Climate Variation

CORVALLIS, Ore. – Northern spotted owl populations are declining in all parts of their range in the Pacific Northwest, according to research published in The Condor. Based on data from 11 study areas across Washington, Oregon and northern California, a rangewide decline of nearly 4 percent per year was estimated from 1985 to 2013.

Date published: March 10, 2015

Endangered Flying Squirrel Relegated to Living on Sky-Islands

Habitat loss has fragmented the population of the Carolina northern flying squirrel, an endangered species now living on “sky-islands” on nine isolated mountain peaks in the southern Appalachians.

Date published: March 2, 2015

Wildlife Researchers to Give Public Close-Up, Real-Time View of Big Game Fieldwork

LARAMIE, WY — Seeking insights to help moose, elk, mule deer and bighorn sheep populations, researchers from the University of Wyoming, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners will spend much of March capturing animals on their winter ranges in western and southern Wyoming.

Date published: January 23, 2015

Culprit Identified in Decline of Endangered Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon

BOZEMAN – Pallid sturgeon come from a genetic line that has lived on this planet for tens of millions of years; yet it has been decades since anyone has documented any of the enormous fish successfully producing young that survive to adulthood in the upper Missouri River basin.

Date published: December 8, 2014

USGS and University of Wyoming Researchers to Share Deer Capture Field Work Via Social Media

Wyoming's struggling mule deer populations are receiving significant attention from University of Wyoming researchers, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, the U.S. Geological Survey and others, with at least five studies underway that could assist efforts to enhance deer numbers and their habitats.

Date published: September 29, 2014

Wind Turbine or Tree? Certain Bats Might Not Know

Certain bats may be approaching wind turbines after mistaking them for trees, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Date published: February 12, 2014

Identifying Bats By Sound

Recording bats' echolocation "calls" is the most efficient and least intrusive way of identifying different species of bats in a given area, providing insight into some populations that have been decimated by white-nose syndrome.