Which volcanic eruptions were the deadliest?

Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions Since 1500 A.D.

     Eruption                                     Year               Casualties                 Major Cause

  • Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia        1985              25,0001,3                      Mudflows3
  • Mont Pelée, Martinique              1902              30,0001(29,025)2        Pyroclastic flows2
  • Krakatau, Indonesia                   1883              36,0001(36,417)2        Tsunami2
  • Tambora, Indonesia                   1815              92,0001,2                       Starvation2
  • Unzendake, Japan                      1792              15,0001(14,030)2         Volcano collapse, Tsunami2
  • Lakagigar (Laki), Iceland            1783              9,0001 (9,350)2            Starvation2
  • Kelut, Indonesia                         1586              10,0001

Other Notable Eruptions

  • Mount Pinatubo, Philippines      1991               3503                                Roof Collapse3
  • Mount St. Helens, Washington   1980               573                                  Asphyxiation from ash
  • Kilauea, Hawaii                           1924               11                                    Falling rock1
  • Lassen Peak, California              1915                04
  • Mount Vesuvius, Italy                 79 A.D.            3,3602                            Pyroclastic Flow2

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Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and Future
Blong, R.J., 1984, Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions: Orlando, Florida, Academic Press, 424p.
Living With Volcanoes: The U.S. Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program
Spall, H. (ed.), 1980, Earthquake Information Bulletin: July-August, 1980, v.12, no.4, 167p.

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Large umbrella shaped cloud of volcanic ash viewed from a distance
1991 (approx.)

Giant ash cloud from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, 1991 towering above farms and agricultural lands in the Philippines.