Earthquake Hazards Program

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Filter Total Items: 1,979
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Year Published: 2020

Rainfall triggers more deep-seated landslides than Cascadia earthquakes in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

The coastal Pacific Northwest USA hosts thousands of deep-seated landslides. Historic landslides have primarily been triggered by rainfall, but the region is also prone to large earthquakes on the 1100-km-long Cascadia Subduction Zone megathrust. Little is known about the number of landslides triggered by these earthquakes because the last...

LaHusen, Sean R; Duvall, Alison R; Booth, Adam M; Grant, Alex R. R. ; Mishkin, Benjamin A; Montgomery, David R; Struble, William; Roering, Joshua J.; Wartman, Joseph

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Year Published: 2020

Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)

 This Fact Sheet describes post-earthquake products and tools provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products that provide situational awareness immediately after significant earthquakes.

Wald, Lisa A.
Wald, L.A., 2020, Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS): U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020–3042, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203042.

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Year Published: 2020

Forecasting for a fractured land: A case study of the communication and use of aftershock forecasts from the Mw 7.8 2016 Kaikōura earthquake in Aotearoa New Zealand

Operational earthquake forecasts (OEFs) are represented as time‐dependent probabilities of future earthquake hazard and risk. These probabilities can be presented in a variety of formats, including tables, maps, and text‐based scenarios. In countries such as Aotearoa New Zealand, the U.S., and Japan, OEFs have been released by scientific...

Becker, Julia S.; Potter, Sally H.; McBride, Sara; Hudson-Doyle, Emma E.; Gerstenberger, Matthew; Christopherson, Anne-Marie

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Year Published: 2020

Developing post-alert messaging for ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the United States of America

As ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the U.S., begins its transition to operational public alerting, we explore how post-alert messaging might represent system performance. Planned post-alert messaging can provide timely, crucial information to both emergency managers and ShakeAlert operators as well as...

McBride, Sara; Bostrom, Ann; Sutton, Jeannette; deGroot, Robert Michael; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Terbush, Brian; Bodin, Paul; Dixon, Maximilian; Holland, Emily; Arba, Ryan; Laustsen, Paul C.; Liu, Sophia; Vinci, Margaret

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Year Published: 2020

A stress-similarity triggering model for aftershocks of the MW6.4 and MW7.1 Ridgecrest earthquakes

The July 2019 Mw">Mw 6.4 and 7.1 Ridgecrest earthquakes triggered numerous aftershocks, including clusters of off‐fault aftershocks in an extensional stepover of the Garlock fault, near the town of Olancha, and near Panamint Valley. The locations of the off‐fault aftershocks are consistent with the stress‐similarity model of triggering,...

Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

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Year Published: 2020

Are the stress drops of small earthquakes good predictors of the stress drops of moderate-to-large earthquakes?

The stress drops of small earthquakes often exhibit spatial patterns of variability. If moderate and large earthquakes follow the same spatial patterns, the stress drops of possible future damaging earthquakes could be better predicted by considering the stress drops of nearby small events. Better stress drop predictability could reduce ground-...

Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismicity induced by massive wastewater injection near Puerto Gaitán, Colombia

Seven years after the beginning of a massive wastewater injection project in eastern Colombia, local earthquake activity increased significantly. The field operator and the Colombian Geological Survey immediately reinforced the monitoring of the area. Our analysis of the temporal evolution of the seismic and injection data together with our...

Molina, I; Velasquez, J.S.; Rubinstein, Justin; García-Aristizabal, A; Dionicio, V

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Year Published: 2020

Laboratory electrical conductivity of marine gas hydrate

Methane hydrate was synthesized from pure water ice and flash frozen seawater, with varying amounts of sand or silt added. Electrical conductivity was determined by impedance spectroscopy, using equivalent circuit modeling to separate the effects of electrodes and to gain insight into conduction mechanisms. Silt and sand increase the conductivity...

Constable, Steven; Lu, Ryan; Stern, Laura A.; Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

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Year Published: 2020

Localized fluid discharge by tensile cracking during the post-seismic period in subduction zones

It is thought that extensional structures (extensional cracks and normal faults) generated during the post-seismic period create fluid pathways that enhance the drainage of the subducting plate interface, thus reducing the pore pressure and increasing fault strength. However, it remains to be elucidated how much pore fluid pressure decreases by...

Otsubo, Makoto; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Miyakawa, Ayumu; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku

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Year Published: 2020

Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model

The U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model (NCM) is being developed to include spatially varying estimates of site response in seismic hazard assessments. Primary outputs of the NCM are continuous velocity and density profiles from the Earth’s surface to the mantle transition zone at 410-kilometer (km) depth for each location on a 1-km grid...

Boyd, Oliver S.
Boyd, O.S., 2020, Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1052, 23 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201052.

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Year Published: 2020

Citizen science collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska

Citizen science is science undertaken by the public, usually in collaboration with professional scientific institutions. It encourages citizens to tackle real-world scientific problems and augments traditional science by expanding the coverage of data collection and by reducing costs of fieldwork in remote locations. Information collected by...

Powers, Elizabeth; Williams, Dee
Powers, E.M., and Williams, D.M., 2020, Citizen science collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020-3026, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203026.

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Year Published: 2020

Global quieting of high-frequency seismic noise due to COVID-19 pandemic lockdown measures

Human activity causes vibrations that propagate into the ground as high-frequency seismic waves. Measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread changes in human activity, leading to a months-long reduction in seismic noise of up to 50%. The 2020 seismic noise quiet period is the longest and most prominent global anthropogenic seismic...

Lecocq, Thomas; Hicks, Stephen; Van Noten, Koen; van Wijk, Kasper; Koelemeijer, Paula; De Plaen, Raphael S.M.; Massin, Frederick; Hillers, Gregor; Anthony, Robert E.; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Arroyo-Solorzano, Mario; Assink, Jelle D.; Buyukakpinar, Pinar; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavo, Flavio; Carrasco, Sebastian; Caudron, Corentin; Chaves, Esteban J.; Cornwell, David G.; Craig, David; den Ouden, Oliver F.C.; Diaz, Jordi; Donner, Stefanie; Evangelidis, Christos P.; Evers, Laslo; Fauville, Benoit; Fernandez, Gonzalo A.; Giannopoulos, Dimitrios; Gibbons, Steven J.; Girona, Tarsilo; Grecu, Bogdan; Grunberg, Marc; Hetenyi, Gyorgy; Horleston, Anna; Inza, Adolfo; Irving, Jessica C.E.; Jamalreyhani, Mohammadreza; Kafka, Alan; Koymans, Mathijs R.; Labedz, Celeste; Larose, Eric; Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; McKinnon, Mika; Megies, Tobias; Miller, Meghan S.; Minarik, William G.; Moresi, Louis; Marquez-Ramirez, Victor H.; Mollhoff, Martin; Nesbitt, Ian; Niyogi, Shankho; Ojeda, Javier; Oth, Adrien; Proud, Simon; Pulli, Jay; Retailleau, Lise; Rintamaki, Annukka E.; Satriano, Claudio; Savage, Martha K.; Shani-Kamiel, Shanhar; Sleeman, Reinoud; Sokos, Efthimios; Stammler, Klaus; Stott, Alexander E.; Subedi, Shiba; Sorensen, Mathilde B.; Taira, Taka'aki; Tapia, Mar; Turhan, Faith; van der Pluijm, Ben; Vanstone, Mark; Vernge, Jerome; Vuorinen, Tommi A.T.; Warren, Tristram; Wassermann, Joachim; Xiao, Han