Earthquake Hazards Program

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Filter Total Items: 2,119
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Year Published: 2020

Characteristics of frequent dynamic triggering of microearthquakes in Southern California

Dynamic triggering of earthquakes has been reported at various fault systems. The triggered earthquakes are thought to be caused either directly by dynamic stress changes due to the passing seismic waves, or indirectly by other nonlinear processes that are initiated by the passing waves. Distinguishing these physical mechanisms is difficult...

Fan, Wenyuan; Barbour, Andrew; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Lin, Guoqing

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic attenuation monitoring of a critically stressed San Andreas fault

We show that seismic attenuation ( ) along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at Parkfield correlates with the occurrence of moderate‐to‐large earthquakes at local and regional distances. Earthquake‐related  anomalies are likely caused by changes in permeability from dilatant static stress changes, damage by strong shaking from local...

Malagnini, Luca; Parsons, Thomas E.

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Year Published: 2020

Ensemble ShakeMaps for magnitude 9 earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone

We develop ensemble ShakeMaps for various magnitude 9 (⁠M">MM 9) earthquakes on the Cascadia megathrust. Ground‐shaking estimates are based on 30 M">MM 9 Cascadia earthquake scenarios, which were selected using a logic‐tree approach that varied the hypocenter location, down‐dip rupture limit, slip distribution, and location of...

Wirth, Erin; Grant, Alex R. R. ; Marafi, Nasser A.; Frankel, Arthur

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Year Published: 2020

Generalizing the inversion‐based PSHA source model for an interconnected fault system

This article represents a step toward generalizing and simplifying the procedure for constructing an inversion‐based seismic hazard source model for an interconnected fault system, including the specification of adjustable segmentation constraints. A very simple example is used to maximize understandability and to counter the notion that an...

Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; Page, Morgan T.

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Year Published: 2020

Earthquake early warning in Aotearoa New Zealand: A survey of public perspectives to guide warning system development

Earthquake early warning (EEW) can be used to detect earthquakes and provide advanced notification of strong shaking, allowing pre-emptive actions to be taken that not only benefit infrastructure but reduce injuries and fatalities. Currently Aotearoa New Zealand does not have a nationwide EEW system, so a survey of the public was undertaken to...

Becker, Julia S.; Potter, Sally H.; Vinnel, Lauren; Nakayachi, Kazuya; McBride, Sara; Johnston, David A.

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Year Published: 2020

More fault connectivity Is needed in seismic hazard analysis

Did the third Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3) go overboard with multifault ruptures? Schwartz (2018) argues that there are too many long ruptures in the model. Here, I address his concern and show that the UCERF3 rupture‐length distribution matches empirical data. I also present evidence that, if anything, the...

Page, Morgan T.

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Year Published: 2020

Distribution of aseismic deformation along the central San Andreas and Calaveras Faults from differencing repeat airborne lidar

Fault creep reduces seismic hazard and serves as a window into plate boundary processes; however, creep rates are typically constrained with sparse measurements. We use differential lidar topography (11–13 year time span) to measure a spatially dense surface deformation field along a 150 km section of the Central San Andreas and...

Scott, Chelsea P; DeLong, Stephen B.; Arrosmith, J Ramon

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Year Published: 2020

Using a large-n seismic array to explore the robustness of spectral estimations

Spectral analysis is widely used to estimate and refine earthquake source parameters such as source radius, seismic moment, and stress drop. This study aims to quantify the precision of the single spectra and empirical Green's function spectral ratio approach using the Large‐n Seismic Survey in Oklahoma (LASSO) array. The dense station...

Kemna, K.B.; Pena Castro, A.F.; Harrington, R.M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

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Year Published: 2020

Injection‐induced earthquakes near Milan, Kansas, controlled by Karstic Networks

Induced earthquakes from waste disposal operations in otherwise tectonically stable regions significantly increases seismic hazard. It remains unclear why injections induce large earthquakes on non‐optimally oriented faults kilometers below the injection horizon, particularly since fluids are not injected under pressure, but rather poured, into...

Joubert, Charlene; Sohrabi, Reza; Rubinstein, Justin; Jansen, Gunnar; Miller, Stephen A

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Year Published: 2020

Localized fault-zone dilatancy and surface inelasticity of the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes

Earthquakes produce a spectrum of elastic and inelastic deformation processes that are reflected across various length and time scales. While elasticity has long dominated research assumptions in active tectonics, increasing interest has focused on the inelastic characteristics of earthquakes, particularly those of the surface fault rupture zone...

Barnhart, William D.; Gold, Ryan D.; Hollingsworth, James

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic reflection imaging of the low-angle Panamint normal fault system, eastern California

Shallowly dipping (<30°) low‐angle normal faults (LANFs) have been documented globally; however, examples of active LANFs in continental settings are limited. The western margin of the Panamint Range in eastern California is defined by a LANF that dips west beneath Panamint Valley and has evidence of Quaternary motion. In addition, high‐angle...

Gold, Ryan D.; Stephenson, William J.; Briggs, Richard W.; Duross, Christopher; Kirby, Eric; Woolery, Edward W; Delano, Jaime; Odum, Jackson K.

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Year Published: 2020

Identifying the greatest earthquakes of the past 2000 years at the Nehalem River Estuary, Northern Oregon Coast, USA

We infer a history of three great megathrust earthquakes during the past 2000 years at the Nehalem River estuary based on the lateral extent of sharp (≤3 mm) peat-mud stratigraphic contacts in cores and outcrops, coseismic subsidence as interpreted from fossil diatom assemblages and reconstructed with foraminiferal assemblages using a Bayesian...

Nelson, Alan R.; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Sawai, Yuki; Engelhart, Simon E.; Witter, Robert C.; Grant-Walter, Wendy C.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Dura, Tina; Cahill, Niamh; Horton, Benajamin P.