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Seismic monitoring solutions for buildings

This chapter introduces seismic monitoring of structural systems for buildings and begins with a historical background of this topic in the United States. After providing the historical context, the chapter reviews common seismic instrumentation issues such as utilization of data, code versus extensive instrumentation, free-field instrumentation, record synchronization requirements and more. Recen

Real-time earthquake detection and alerting behavior of PLUM ground-motion-based early warning in the United States

We examine the real‐time earthquake detection and alerting behavior of the Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm and compare PLUM’s performance with the real‐time performance of the current source‐characterization‐based ShakeAlert System. In the United States (U.S.), PLUM uses a two‐station approach to detect earthquakes. Once a detection is confirmed

Comparisons of the NGA-Subduction ground motion models

In this article, ground-motion models (GMMs) for subduction earthquakes recently developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation-Subduction (NGA-Sub) project are compared. The four models presented in this comparison study are documented in their respective articles submitted along with this article. Each of these four models is based on the analysis of the large NGA-Sub database. Three of th

The evolution of rock friction is more sensitive to slip than elapsed time, even at near-zero slip rates

For many decades, frictional strength increase at low slip rates has been ascribed to time-dependent contact-area growth across the sliding interface. As a result, phenomenological models that correctly predict contact-area growth, as observed in laboratory experiments, have also been widely assumed to be appropriate descriptors of frictional strength evolution. We present experiments that impose

The 8 April 1860 Jour de Pâques earthquake sequence in southern Haiti

The grave threat posed by the Enriquillo‐Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) and other fault systems on the Tiburon Peninsula in southern Haiti was highlighted by the catastrophic M 7.0 Léogâne earthquake on 12 January 2010 and again by the deadly M 7.2 Nippes earthquakes on 14 August 2021. Early Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations suggest the 2021 earthquake broke structures asso

DevelNet: Earthquake detection on Develocorder films with deep learning: Application to the rangely earthquake control experiment

There exists over a century of instrumental seismic data; however, most seismograms recorded before the 1980s are only available in analog form. Although analog seismograms are of great value, they are underutilized due to the difficulties of making quantitative measurements on the original media and in converting them to digital time series. In this study, we present an alternative workflow, base

Response study of a tall San Diego, California building inferred from the M7.1 July 5, 2019 Ridgecrest, California earthquake motions

The shaking of a new 24-story tall building in San Diego, California, was recorded by its seismic monitoring array during the M7.1 Ridgecrest, California earthquake of July 5, 2019. The building is located ~340 km from the epicenter of the event. The building is a special moment framed (SMF) steel structure with reduced beam sections (RBS) and viscous damper systems (DS). Peak accelerations record

P- and S-wave velocity estimation by ensemble Kalman inversion of dispersion data for strong motion stations in California

This study uses an ensemble Kalman method for near-surface seismic site characterization of 154 network earthquake monitoring stations in California to improve the resolution of S-wave velocity (VS) and P-wave velocity (VP) profiles—up to the resolution depth—coupled with better quantification of uncertainties compared to previous site characterization studies at this network. These stations were

#TheSmoreYouKnow and #emergencycute: A conceptual model on the use of humor by science agencies during crisis to create connection, empathy, and compassion

Studies from a variety of disciplines reveal that humor can be a useful method to reduce stress and increase compassion, connection, and empathy between agencies and people they serve during times of crisis. Despite this growing evidence base, humor's use during a geohazard (earthquake, volcanoes, landslides, and tsunami) to aid scientific agencies' crisis communication response has been rarely st

Earthquakes and tsunami

Earthquakes occur as a burst of sudden ground shaking created by the release of accumulated stress along a fault, often influenced by movement of the world’s tectonic plates. Ground shaking from an earthquake can generate additional hazards, including landslides, liquefaction, and tsunami. According to the 2019 “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”, earthquakes combined with tsunam

Friction in clay-bearing faults increases with the ionic radius of interlayer cations

Smectite can dramatically reduce the strength of crustal faults and may cause creep on natural faults without great earthquakes; however, the frictional mechanism remains unexplained. Here, our shear experiments reveal systematic increase in shear strength with the increase of the ionic radius of interlayer cations among lithium-, sodium-, potassium-, rubidium-, and cesium-montmorillonites, a smec

High‐frequency rupture processes of the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique and 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel, Chile, earthquakes determined from strong‐motion recordings

Strong‐motion recordings of the 2014 MwMw 8.2 Iquique and 2015 MwMw 8.3 Illapel, Chile, earthquakes were analyzed to determine rupture propagation and the location, timing, and strength of subevents that produce most of the high‐frequency (≥1 Hz) ground motions. A moving window,cross‐correlation analysis of recordings from a local dense array, band‐pass filtered at 1 Hz, directly shows that the Iq