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Publications

Here you will find publications, reports and articles produced by the National Geospatial Program (NGP) scientists. For a comprehensive listing of all USGS publications please click the button below.

Filter Total Items: 168

Absolute accuracy assessment of lidar point cloud using amorphous objects

The accuracy assessment of airborne lidar point cloud typically estimates vertical accuracy by computing RMSEz (root mean square error of the z coordinate) from ground check points (GCPs). Due to the low point density of the airborne lidar point cloud, there is often not enough accurate semantic context to find an accurate conjugate point. To advance the accuracy assessment in full three-dimension

Precision of headwater stream permanence estimates from a monthly water balance model in the Pacific Northwest, USA

Stream permanence classifications (i.e., perennial, intermittent, ephemeral) are a primary consideration to determine stream regulatory status in the United States (U.S.) and are an important indicator of environmental conditions and biodiversity. However, at present, no models or products adequately describe surface water presence for regulatory determinations. We modified the Thornthwaite monthl

The accuracy and consistency of 3D Elevation Program data: A systematic analysis

The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) has created partnership opportunities to increase the collection of high-resolution elevation data across the United States, eventually leading to complete coverage of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) information from light detection and ranging (lidar) data across the entire country (interferometric synthetic aperture radar in Alaska). While 3DEP data are co

3D Elevation Program supports broadband internet access

According to the Federal Communications Commission, millions of Americans in rural parts of the country currently lack access to broadband (high-speed, always-on internet). Federal and State agencies have launched initiatives to enhance broadband access in rural America. High-resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) data can play a role in improving maps of broadband accessibility and helpin

Spatial data reduction through element -of-interest (EOI) extraction

Any large, multifaceted data collection that is challenging to handle with traditional management practices can be branded ‘Big Data.’ Any big data containing geo-referenced attributes can be considered big geospatial data. The increased proliferation of big geospatial data is currently reforming the geospatial industry into a data-driven enterprise. Challenges in the big spatial data domain can b

3D Elevation Program—Federal best practices

The goal of the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) is to complete nationwide data acquisition in 8 years, by 2023, to provide the first-ever national baseline of consistent high-resolution three-dimensional data—including bare earth elevations and three-dimensional point clouds—collected in a timeframe of less than a decade. Successful implementation of 3DEP depends on partnerships and the development an

Semantically enabling map projections knowledge

Map projections are an area of cartography with a firm mathematical foundation for their creation and display providing a basis for a knowledge representation. Using only variations on a single equation set, an infinite number of projections can be created, but less than 100 are in active use. Because each projection preserves specific characteristics, such as area, angles, global look, or a compr

Elevation-derived hydrography acquisition specifications

Hydrographic features derived from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program data, and collected for use by the USGS, must meet the specifications described in this document. The specifications described herein pertain to the final product delivered to the USGS, not to methods used to derive the hydrographic features. The specifications describe the collection area, spatial reference syst

Elevation-derived hydrography—Representation, extraction, attribution, and delineation rules

With the increasing availability of 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) quality high resolution elevation data across the United States and the pressing need for better integrated elevation and hydrography data, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing guidance to improve the horizontal and vertical alignment of these datasets. The U.S. Geological Survey is providing the Elevation-Derived Hydrography—Acqu

NHDPlus High Resolution (NHDPlus HR)---A hydrography framework for the Nation

Reliable and accurate high-resolution mapping of the Nation’s waters are critical inputs to models and decision support systems used to predict risk and enable response to impacts on water resources. It is necessary to know where the water is and how it relates to features beyond the stream network like forests, cities, and infrastructure. An up-to-date, high-resolution national hydrography framew