Christopher T Green, Ph.D.


Research Interests

  • Flow and reactive transport in complex geological media
  • Nitrogen cycling and fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas
  • Flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone
  • Gas transport in the unsaturated zone
  • Effects of biofuels crops on groundwater quality


Refereed Publications

Kolbe, T., De Dreuzy, J.R., Abbott, B.W., Aquilina, L., Babey, T., Green, C.T., Fleckenstein, J.H., Labasque, T., Laverman, A.M., Marçais, J. and Peiffer, S., 2019. Stratification of reactivity determines nitrate removal in groundwater. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(7), pp.2494-2499.

Koh, E.H., Lee, E., Kaown, D., Green, C.T., Koh, D.C., Lee, K.K. and Lee, S.H., 2018. Comparison of groundwater age models for assessing nitrate loading, transport pathways, and management options in a complex aquifer system. Hydrological Processes, 32(7), 923-938, doi: 10.1002/hyp.11465. 

Nolan, B.T., Green, C.T., Juckem, P.F., Liao, L. and Reddy, J.E., 2018. Metamodeling and mapping of nitrate flux in the unsaturated zone and groundwater, Wisconsin, USA. Journal of Hydrology, 559, pp.428-441, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.02.029. 

Nolan, B.T., Green, C.T., Juckem, P.F., Liao, Lixia, and Reddy, J.E., 2018, Data Release for Metamodeling and Mapping of Nitrate Flux in the Unsaturated Zone and Groundwater, Wisconsin, USA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, doi:10.5066/F7ZC81VR. 

Conaway, C.H., Walvoord, M.A., Thomas, R.B., Green, C.T., Baker, R.J., Thordsen, J.J., Stonestrom, D.A., and Andraski, B.J., 2018. Unsaturated zone CO2, CH4, and δ13C-CO2 at an arid region low-level radioactive waste disposal site. Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1), doi: 10.2136/vzj2017.11.0200.

Lu, B., Zhang, Y., Zheng, C., Green, C.T., O’Neill, C., Sun, H.G. and Qian, J., 2018. Comparison of Time Nonlocal Transport Models for Characterizing Non-Fickian Transport: From Mathematical Interpretation to Laboratory Application. Water,10(6), 778, doi: 10.3390/w10060778.

Green, C. T., Liao, L., Nolan, B. T., Juckem, P. F., Shope, C. L., Tesoriero, A. J., & Jurgens, B. C. (2018). Regional variability of nitrate fluxes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater, Wisconsin, USA. Water Resources Research, 54.

Zhang, Y., C. T. Green, E. M. LaBolle, R. M. Neupauer, and H.G. Sun (2016), Bounded fractional diffusion in geological media: Definition and Lagrangian approximation, Water Resour. Res., 52, 8561–8577, doi:10.1002/2016WR019178.

Green, C.T., Jurgens, B.C., Zhang, Y., Starn, J.J., Singelton, M.J., Esser, B.K., (2016), Regional oxygen reduction and denitrification rates in groundwater from multi-model residence time distributions, San Joaquin Valley, USA. Journal of Hydrology, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.018.

Starn, J. J., A. C. Bagtzoglou, and C. T. Green (2015), The effects of numerical-model complexity and observation type on estimated porosity values, Hydrogeology Journal, DOI: 10.1007/s10040-015-1289-3.

Green, C. T., M. A. Walvoord, B. J.Andraski, R. G. Striegl, and D. A.Stonestrom (2015), Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone, Water Resour. Res., 51, doi:10.1002/2014WR016055.

Zhang, Y., C. T. Green, and G. T. Tick (2015), Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 177: 220-238.

Walvoord, M. A., B. J. Andraski, C. T. Green, D. A. Stonestrom, and R. G. Striegl (2014), Field-scale SF6 tracer experiment to understand long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone, Vadose Zone Journal. doi:10.2136/vzj2014.04.0045.

Shiyin, L., Jiangpeng, Z., Guoxiang, W. Lixiao, N. Zhang, Y., and Green, C.T. (2014),  Rapid removal of nitrobenzene in a three-phase ozone loaded system with gas-liquid-liquid. Chemical Engineering Communications, doi:10.1080/00986445.2013.867259.

Green, C. T., Y. Zhang, B. C. Jurgens, J. J. Starn, and M. K. Landon (2014). Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection, Water Resources Research, 50, 6191–6213, doi:10.1002/2014WR015625.

Starn, J.J., Green, C.T., Hinkle, S.R., Bagtzoglou, A., and Stolp, B.J. (2014), Simulating water-quality trends in public-supply wells in transient flow systems. Groundwater. doi: 10.1111/gwat.12230.

Green, C.T., Bekins, B.A., Kalkhoff, S.J., Hirsch, R. M., Liao, L., and Barnes, K.K. (2014), Decadal surface water quality trends under variable climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting in Iowa, USA. Water Resources Research, 50, doi:10.1002/2013WR014829.

Zhang, Y., Green, C.T., and Baeumer, B., (2014), Linking aquifer spatial properties and non-Fickian transport in mobile-immobile like alluvial settings, Journal of Hydrology, 512 (2014) 315–331, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.02.064.

Tiedeman, C.R., and Green, C.T. (2013), Effect of correlated observation error on parameters, predictions, and uncertainty. Water Resources Research, 49: 6339–6355, doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20499.

Zhang, Y., Green, C.T., and Fogg, G.E. (2013), The impact of medium architecture of alluvial settings on non-Fickian transport. Advances in Water Resources, 54: 78–99, doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2013.01.004.

Liao, L., Green, C.T., Bekins, B.A., and Böhlke, J.K. (2012), Factors controlling nitrate fluxes in groundwater in agricultural areas. Water Resources Research, 48, W00L09, doi:10.1029/2011WR011008.

Nolan, B.T., Malone, R.W., Ma, L., Green, C.T., Jaynes, D.B. (2011), Inverse modeling with RZWQM2 to predict water quality. in Ahuja, L., and Ma, L., eds., Methods of Introducing Systems Models into Agricultural Research: ASA series on Advances in Agricultural Systems Modeling.

Landon, M.K., Green, C.T., Belitz, K., Singleton, M.J., and Esser, B.K. (2011), Relations of hydrogeologic factors, groundwater reduction-oxidation conditions, and temporal and spatial distributions of nitrate, Central-Eastside San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, Hydrogeology Journal. DOI: 0.1007/s10040-011-0750-1.

Welch, H.L., Green, C.T., and Coupe, R.H. (2011), The fate and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in northwestern Mississippi, USA, Hydrogeology Journal, DOI: 10.1007/s10040-011-0748-8.

Green, C. T., Böhlke, J.K., Bekins, B.A., and Phillips, S.P. (2010), Mixing effects on apparent reaction rates and isotope fractionation during denitrification in a heterogeneous aquifer, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2009WR008903.

Nolan, B.T., Puckett, L.J., Ma, L., Green, C.T., Bayless, E.R., and Malone, R.W. (2010), Predicting Unsaturated Zone Nitrogen Mass Balances in Agricultural Settings of the United States, Journal of Environmental Quality, 39: 1051-1065.

Green, C.T.; Fisher, L.H., and Bekins, B.A., 2008a, Nitrogen fluxes through unsaturated zones in five agricultural settings across the United States. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37: 1073-1085.

Green, C.T., Pucket, L.J., Böhlke, J.K., Bekins, B.A., Phillips, S.P., Kauffman, L.J., Denver, J.M., and Johnson, H.M., 2008, Fate and transport of nitrate in four shallow aquifers in agricultural areas of the USA, Journal of Environmental Quality, 37: 994-1009.

Basagaoglu, H., Meakin, P., Green, C.T., and  Mathew, M. 2006. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections, Physica A, 362(1): 17-22.

Green, C.T., Stonestrom, D.A., Bekins, B.A., Akstin, K.C., and Schulz, M.S., 2005, Recharge and transport processes in a sandy soil in the San Joaquin Valley, California, Water Resources Research, 41(10): W10414 10.1029/2005WR004061.

Basagaoglu, H., Green, C.T., Meakin, P., and McCoy, B.J., 2004, Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of coalescence driven island coarsening, Journal of Chemical Physics, 121(16): 7987-7995.

Basagaoglu, H., Ginn, T.R., Green, C.T., and McCoy, B.J., 2002, Transport in heterogeneous media: tracer dynamics in complex flow networks, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Journal, 48: 1121-1131.

Fogg, G.E., Carle, S., and Green, C.T., 2001, A connected network paradigm for the alluvial aquifer system. In: Dongxiao Zhang and C. Larry Winter (eds.). Theory, Modeling and Field Investigation in Hydrogeology: A Special Volume in Honor of Shlomo P. Neuman's 60th Birthday, Geological Society of America Special Publication, 252p.

Green, C.T., and Scow, K.M., 2000, Use of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) to characterize microbial communities in aquifers, Hydrogeology Journal, 8: 126-141.

Reports and proceedings papers

Green, C.T. and Starn, J.J. Simulated Travel Time Distributions and Water Quality Trends, 2011, Proceedings, Modflow and More Conference, Golden CO, 6 p.

Green, CT; and Bekins, BA. 2010.  Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3077, 4 p.

Welch, HL, Green, CT, Rebich, RA, Barlow, JRB, and Hicks, MB, 2010, Unintended consequences of biofuels production—The effects of large-scale crop conversion on water quality and quantity: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1229, 6 p.

Green, CT; and Bekins, BA. 2008. Comparison of simulated travel time distributions and age tracer concentrations in samples from an alluvial fan aquifer, San Joaquin Valley, CA. Proceedings of the Central Valley Modeling Conference. July 11. University of California, Berkeley, CA

Burow, KR; Green, CT. 2008. Spatial and temporal trends in nitrate concentrations in the Eastern San Joaquin Valley Regional Aquifer and implications for fertilizer management. Proceedings of the 2008 Plant & Soil Conference. February 5-6, Visalia, CA.

Phillips, SP; Green, CT; Burow, KR; Shelton, JL; and Rewis, DL. 2007. Simulation of Multiscale Ground-Water Flow in Part of the Northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5009.

Nolan, BT; Bayless, ER; Green, CT; Garg, S; Voss, FD; Lampe, DC; Barbash, JE; Capel, P; and Bekins, B. 2005. Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File report #2005-1196.

Green, CT; LaBolle, EM; and Fogg, GE. 2002. Random walk particle tracking for simulating reactive transport in heterogeneous aquifers: effects of concentration averaging. Proceedings of the International Groundwater Symposium. International Association of Hydraulic Research and American Geophysical Union. March, Berkeley, CA.

Seeboonruang, U; Ginn, TR; and Green, CT. 2002. Quantifying the effects of chemical heterogeneity by combining Lagrangean transport and the exposure-time concept. Proceedings of the International Groundwater Symposium. International Association of Hydraulic Research and American Geophysical Union. March, Berkeley, CA.

Hovorka, SD; Doughty, C; Knox, PR; Green, CT; Pruess, K; and Benson, SM. 2001. Evaluation of brine bearing sands of the Frio formation, upper Texas Gulf Coast for geological sequestration of CO2. Proceedings of First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration. May 14-17, Washington, DC. Sponsored by National Energy Technology Laboratory, 13pp.

Doughty, C; Pruess, K; Benson, SM; Hovorka, SD; Knox, PR; and Green, CT. 2001. Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Frio formation for geologic sequestration of CO2. Proceedings of First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration. May 14-17, Washington, DC. Sponsored by National Energy Technology Laboratory, 16pp.

Fogg, GE; Meays, ME; Trask, J; Green, CT; LaBolle, EM; Shenk, T; and Rolston, DE. 1998. Impacts of MTBE on California groundwater. Hydrologic Sciences, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis. Senate Bill 521 Report. 100pp.