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The imager for Mars Pathfinder experiment

The imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), a stereoscopic, multispectral camera, is described in terms of its capabilities for studying the Martian environment. The camera's two eyes, separated by 15.0 cm, provide the camera with range‐finding ability. Each eye illuminates half of a single CCD detector with a field of view of 14.4×14.0° and has 12 selectable filters. The ƒ/18 optics have a large depth

The Topography of Asteroid Ida: A Comparison between Photogrammetric and Shape­Form-Shading Image Analysis

We derived high resolution Digital Terrain Models from stereo images of the asteroid Ida that were obtained by the Galileo spacecraft during the flyby in August 1993 and compared these results with terrain models derived from two-dimensional photoclinometry. The comparison shows that there are striking discrepancies between the results from the two models depending on the spatial scale length of s

Modeling of fluidized ejecta emplacement over digital topography on Venus

The FLOW computer model of McEwen and Malin (1989) modified for application to the study of Venus fluidized ejecta blankets (FEBs) demonstrates that relatively low viscosities, yield strengths, and initial velocities are required to duplicate the observed flow paths of the outflow materials. The model calculates the velocities and simulated flow paths of gravity flows over Magellan topography. The

Decomposition of AVIRIS spectra: Extraction of spectral reflectance, atmospheric, and instrumental components

Presents techniques that use only information contained within a raw, high-spectral-resolution, hyperspectral Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene to estimate and remove additive components (atmospheric scattering and instrument dark current). These techniques allow normalization of multiplicative components (instrument gain, topography, atmospheric transmission) and enhan

A migratory mantle plume on Venus: Implications for Earth?

A spatially fixed or at least internally rigid hotspot reference frame has been assumed for determining relative plate motions on Earth. Recent 1:5,000,000 scale mapping of Venus, a planet without terrestrial-style plate tectonics and ocean cover, reveals a systematic age and dimensional progression of corona-like arachnoids occurring in an uncinate chain. The nonrandom associations between arachn

Geology of 243 Ida

The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the

Compositional variations on the Moon: Recalibration of Galileo solid‐state imaging data for the Orientale region and farside

Updated radiometric calibration and systematic processing procedures for Galileo solid‐state imaging (SSI) data from the first (1990) Earth‐Moon encounter are presented. These procedures were applied to a whole‐disk imaging sequence of the Moon centered near Mare Orientale, called Lunmap 14 (L14). Processing of L14 data included radiometric calibration, subpixel coregistration, scattered light rem

Velocities and mass balance of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, derived from ERS-1 SAR images

Pine Island Glacier is one of the major ice streams draining West Antarctica. We calculated average velocities for both its grounded and floating parts by tracking crevasses and other patterns moving with the ice on two sequential images acquired in February and December 1992 by ERS-1 SAR (European Remote-Sensing Satellite, Synthetic Aperture Radar). Velocities in the fast-moving central parts of

Geology of Triton

Triton, with a diameter of ≡2700 km, is Neptune's only planet-class satellite. The complexity of Triton's surface and the variety of surface features is unequaled among the satellites of the solar system. From a geologic viewpoint, some of Triton's features have apparently familiar morphologies and general interpretative agreement exists. However, many of its landforms have novel morphologies and