Astrogeology Science Center

Publications

Filter Total Items: 890
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Year Published: 2021

Active neutron interrogation experiments and simulation verification using the SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma-Ray spectrometer (SINGR) for geosciences

We present a new SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma Ray spectrometer (SINGR) instrument for use with both passive and active measurement techniques. Here we discuss the application of SINGR for planetary exploration missions, however, hydrology, nuclear non-proliferation, and resource prospecting are all potential areas where the instrument...

Heffern, Lena E.; Hardgrove, Craig J.; Parsons, Ann; Johnson, E. B.; Starr, R.; Stoddard, G.; Blakeley, R. E.; Prettyman, T.; Gabriel, Travis Saint James; Barnaby, H.; Christian, J.; Unzueta, M.A.; Tate, C.; Martin, A.; Moersch, J.

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Year Published: 2021

Past, present, and future of Mars Polar Science: Outcomes and outlook from the 7th International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

Mars Polar Science is a subfield of Mars science that encompasses all studies of the cryosphere of Mars and its interaction with the Martian environment. Every 4 yr, the community of scientists dedicated to this subfield meets to discuss new findings and debate open issues in the International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration (...

Becerra, Patricio; Smith, Isaac B.; Hibbard, Shannon M; Andres, Chimira; Bapst, Jonathan; Bramson, Ali; Buhler, Peter; Coronato, Andrea; Diniega, Serina; Emmett, Jeremy; Grau Galofre, Anna; Herny, Clemence; Kahre, Melinda; Knightly, J. Paul; Nerozzi, Stefano; Pascuzzo, Alyssa; Portyankina, Ganna; Rabassa, Jorge; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy N.; Whitten, Jennifer L; Yoldi, Zuriñe

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Year Published: 2021

Geologic map of the Athabasca Valles region, Mars

This 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map of the Athabasca Valles region of Mars places the best-preserved lavas on Mars into their geologic context. The map shows vigorous geologic activity in the most recent epoch of the geologic history of Mars, which is extremely unusual for the planet. In these atypically youthful terrains, the interpretations of...

Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Huff, Alexandra E.; Jaeger, Windy L.
Keszthelyi, L.P., Huff, A.E., and Jaeger, W.L., 2021, Geologic map of the Athabasca Valles region, Mars: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3477, pamphlet 11 p., 1 sheet, scale 1,000,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3477.

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Year Published: 2021

A preliminary regional geomorphologic map in Utopia Planitia of the Tianwen-1 Zhurong Landing Region

A geomorphologic map is an important step to understanding the geologic context and history of a site; here, we present an initial geomorphologic map for an area spanning 22°–26°N, 108°–112°E in the Utopia Planitia (UP) region on Mars. This site is of special interest because it contains the May 2021 landing site of the Zhurong rover from Tianwen-...

Mills, Mackenzie M; McEwen, Alfred S.; Okubo, Chris

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Year Published: 2021

Advancing cave detection using terrain analysis and thermal imagery

Since the initial experiments nearly 50 years ago, techniques for detecting caves using airborne and spacecraft acquired thermal imagery have improved markedly. These advances are largely due to a combination of higher instrument sensitivity, modern computing systems, and processor-intensive analytical techniques. Through applying these...

Wynne, J. Judson; Jenness, Jeff; Sonderegger, Derek; Titus, Timothy N.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.

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Year Published: 2021

Geologic map of Olympus Mons caldera, Mars

The Mars volcano, Olympus Mons, is probably the best known extraterrestrial volcano. The summit forms a nested caldera with six overlapping collapse pits that collectively measure ~65 x ~80 kilometers (km). Numerous wrinkle ridges and graben occur on the caldera floor, and topographic data indicate >1.2 km of elevation change since the...

Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.
Mouginis-Mark, P.J., 2021, Geologic map of Olympus Mons caldera, Mars: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3470, 6 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:200,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3470.

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Year Published: 2021

Evaluating stereo digital terrain model quality at Mars Rover Landing Sites with HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE Images

We have used high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) of two rover landing sites based on mosaicked images from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera as a reference to evaluate DTMs based on High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) and Context Camera (CTX) images. The Next-Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction (NGATE)...

Kirk, Randolph L.; Mayer, David; Fergason, Robin L.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.; Hare, Trent M.; Gwinner, Klaus

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Year Published: 2021

A geologic field guide to S P Mountain and its lava flow, San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

IntroductionWe created this guide to introduce the user to the San Francisco Volcanic Field as a terrestrial analog site for planetary volcanic processes. For decades, the San Francisco Volcanic Field has been used to teach scientists to recognize the products of common types of volcanic eruptions and associated volcanic features. The volcanic...

Gullikson, Amber L.; Rumpf, M. Elise; Edgar, Lauren A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Skinner, James A.; Thompson, Lisa
Gullikson, A.L., Rumpf, M.E., Edgar, L.A., Keszthelyi, L.P., Skinner, J.A., Jr., and Thompson, L., 2021, A geologic field guide to S P Mountain and its lava flow, San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1072, 37 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211072.

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Year Published: 2021

A review of the phyllosilicates in Gale Crater as detected by the CheMin Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity Rover

Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, landed on Mars in August 2012 to investigate the ~3.5-billion-year-old (Ga) fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary deposits of Aeolis Mons (informally known as Mount Sharp) and the surrounding plains (Aeolis Palus) in Gale crater. After nearly nine years, Curiosity has traversed over 25 km, and the...

Tu, Valerie M.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Bristow, Thomas F.; Thorpe, Michael T.; Clark, Joanna V.; Castle, Nicholas; Fraeman, Abigail A.; Edgar, Lauren A.; McAdam, Amy; Bedford, Candice C.; Achilles, Cherie N.; Blake, David; Chipera, Steve J.; Craig, Patricia I.; Des Marais, David J.; Downs, Gordie W.; Downs, Robert T.; Fox, Valerie K.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hazen, Robert M.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Morrison, Shaunna M.; Pavri, Betina; Peretyazhko, Tanya S.; Sarazin, Philippe C.; Sutter, Brad; Treiman, Allan H.; Vaniman, David T.; Yen, Albert S.; Bridges, Jon C.

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Year Published: 2021

A numerical model for the cooling of a lava sill with heat pipe effects

Understanding the cooling process of volcanic intrusions into wet sediments is a difficult but important problem, given the presence of extremely large temperature gradients and potentially complex water-magma interactions. This report presents a numerical model to study such interactions, including the effect of heat pipes on the cooling of...

Williams, Kaj E.; Dundas, Colin M.; Kestay, Laszlo P.
Williams, K.E., Dundas, C.M., and Kestay, L.P., 2021, A numerical model for the cooling of a lava sill with heat pipe effects: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 13, chap. B2, 14 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm13B2.

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Year Published: 2021

Brine-driven destruction of clay minerals in Gale crater, Mars

Mars’ sedimentary rock record preserves information on geological (and potential astrobiological) processes that occurred on the planet billions of years ago. The Curiosity rover is exploring the lower reaches of Mount Sharp, in Gale crater on Mars. A traverse from Vera Rubin ridge to Glen Torridon has allowed Curiosity to...

Bristow, T. F.; Grotzinger, John P.; Rampe, E.; Cuadros, J.; Chipera, S. J.; Downs, G.; Fedo, Christopher M.; Frydenvang, Jens; McAdam, A. C.; Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Blake, D. F.; Castle, N.; Craig, P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Downs, R. T.; Hazen, R. M.; Ming, D. W.; Morrison, S. M.; Thorpe, M. T.; Treiman, A. H.; Tu, V.; Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Gellert, R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Wiens, Roger C.; Bryk, A. B.; Bennett, Kristen Alicia; Fox, V. K.; Milliken, R. E.; Fraeman, Abigail A.; Vasavada, A. R.

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Year Published: 2021

Further adventures in Mars DTM quality: Smoothing errors, sharpening details

We have used high-precision, high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) of the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Mars 2020 rover landing sites based on mosaicked images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) camera as a reference data set to evaluate DTMs based on Mars Express High...

Kirk, Randolph L.; Mayer, David; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.; Fergason, Robin L.; Hare, Trent M.; Gwinner, Klaus