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Planetary Aeolian landforms: An introduction to the Fifth Planetary Dunes Workshop Special Issue

Aeolian landforms are widespread in our solar system. Understanding the exact nature and processes of formation of these features are challenging tasks necessitating a strong collaboration between scientists with different skills and scientific backgrounds. This paper describes the special issue for the 5th International Planetary Dunes Workshop, which includes 15 research papers and three comment

Ancient winds, waves, and atmosphere in Gale Crater, Mars, inferred from sedimentary structures and wave modeling

Wave modeling and analysis of sedimentary structures were used to evaluate whether four examples of symmetrical, reversing, or straight-crested bedforms in Gale crater sandstones are preserved wave ripples; deposition by waves would demonstrate that the lake was not covered by ice at that time. Wave modeling indicates that regardless of atmospheric density, winds that exceeded the threshold of aeo

Using near–surface temperature data to vicariously calibrate high-resolution thermal infrared imagery and estimate physical surface properties

Thermal response of the surface to solar insolation is a function of the topography and the thermal physical characteristics of the landscape, which include bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and surface albedo and emissivity. Thermal imaging is routinely used to constrain thermal physical properties by characterizing or modeling changes in the diurnal temperature profiles. Images n

In situ recording of Mars soundscape

Prior to the Perseverance rover landing, the acoustic environment of Mars was unknown. Models predicted that: (i) atmospheric turbulence changes at centimeter scales or smaller at the point where molecular viscosity converts kinetic energy into heat1, (ii) the speed of sound varies at the surface with frequency2,3, and (iii) high frequency waves are strongly attenuated with distance in CO22–4. How

Mass balance of two perennial snowfields: Niwot Ridge, Colorado and the Ulaan Taiga, Mongolia.

Perennial snowfields are generally receding worldwide, though the precise mechanisms causing recessions are not always well understood. Here we apply a numerical snowpack model to identify the leading factors controlling the mass balance of two perennial snowfields that have significant human interest: Arapaho glacier, located at Niwot Ridge in the Colorado Rocky Mountains (United States), and a s

The Lunar Geophysical Network landing site science rationale

The Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) mission is proposed to land on the Moon in 2030 and deploy packages at four locations to enable geophysical measurements for 6–10 yr. Returning to the lunar surface with a long-lived geophysical network is a key next step to advance lunar and planetary science. LGN will greatly expand our primarily Apollo-based knowledge of the deep lunar interior by identifying

hical—The HiRISE radiometric calibration software developed within the ISIS3 planetary image processing suite

IntroductionThis report summarizes the software and algorithms that are used to calibrate images returned by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. The instrument design and data processing methods are summarized below, followed by a description of relevant calibration data and details of the calibration procedure. I

Planetary dunes tell of otherworldly winds

Dune fields are common on beaches and in deserts—think of the imposing sand hills and sinuous ripples of the Sahara in Africa or the Karakum in Central Asia, for example—as well as underwater on the beds of rivers, lakes, and oceans. The varied shapes, sizes, and orientations of both modern dunes and those preserved in the geologic record tell of the conditions under which they formed, particularl

Clustering supported classification of ChemCam data from Gale crater, Mars

The Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument on board the MSL rover Curiosity has collected a very large and unique dataset of in-situ spectra and images of Mars since landing in August 2012. More than 800,000 single shot LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) spectra measured on more than 2,500 individual targets were returned so far by ChemCam. Such a dataset is ideally suited for the appl

Active neutron interrogation experiments and simulation verification using the SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma-Ray spectrometer (SINGR) for geosciences

We present a new SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma Ray spectrometer (SINGR) instrument for use with both passive and active measurement techniques. Here we discuss the application of SINGR for planetary exploration missions, however, hydrology, nuclear non-proliferation, and resource prospecting are all potential areas where the instrument could be applied. SINGR uses an elpasolite scintillato

Past, present, and future of Mars Polar Science: Outcomes and outlook from the 7th International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

Mars Polar Science is a subfield of Mars science that encompasses all studies of the cryosphere of Mars and its interaction with the Martian environment. Every 4 yr, the community of scientists dedicated to this subfield meets to discuss new findings and debate open issues in the International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration (ICMPSE). This paper summarizes the proceedings of the s

Workshop on terrestrial analogs for planetary exploration

Terrestrial analogs are an important part of the robotic and human exploration of the solar system. One of the main recommendations from a community survey conducted in 2019 was to hold a workshop to increase communication and share resources among scientists, engineers, data managers, educators, and students who are involved, or hope to be involved, in terrestrial analog studies.