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Multispectral digital image mapping of Antarctic ice features

Landsat multispectral images of the Antarctic ice sheet have been digitally enhanced by the US Geological Survey to show ice surface features not seen in earlier photographic products of the same scenes. Now for the first time it is worthwhile to prepare image maps at scales of up to 1:250 000 of ice sheet areas even where no nunataks are visible. Derivatives of the data can be stretched to bring

Antarctica: Measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agre

Europa: Characterization and interpretation of global spectral surface units

The Voyager global multispectral mosaic of the Galilean satellite Europa (T. V. Johnson, L. A. Soderblom, J. A. Mosher, G. E. Danielson, A. F. Cook, and P. Kupferman, 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5789–5805) was analyzed to map surface units with similar optical properties (T. B. McCord, M. L. Nelson, R. N. Clark, A. Meloy, W. Harrison, T. V. Johnson, D. L. Matson, J. A. Mosher, and L. Soderblom, 198

Remote sensing of lunar pyroclastic mantling deposits

Mantling deposits on the Moon are considered to be pyroclastic units emplaced on the lunar surface as a result of explosive fire fountaining. These pyroclastic units are characterized as having low albedos, having smooth fine-textured surfaces, and consisting in part of homogeneous, Febearing volcanic glass and partially crystallized spheres. Mantling units exhibit low returns on depolarized 3.8-c

Geomorphologic evidence for ground ice on Mars

For ground ice to exist on Mars, two conditions have to be met. One is the presence of permafrost; the second is the availability of water. Because the mean temperature of Mars’surface is − 80 C., permafrost 1–3 km thick occurs over the entire planet. Remote-sensing measurements suggest that water presently exists in the atmosphere and in the polar caps; frost has been observed at the Viking landi

Ice and debris in the fretted terrain, Mars

Viking moderate- and high-resolution images along the northern highland margin were studied monoscopically and stereoscopically to contribute to an understanding of the development of fretted terrain. Results support the hypothesis that the fretting process involved flow facilitated by interstitial ice. The process apparently continued for a long period of time, and debris-apron formation shaped t

The Galilean satellite geological mapping program

The Galilean Satellite Geological Mapping Program was established to illuminate detailed geologic relations on the four large satellites of Jupiter. The program involves about 40 investigators from various universities, reseach institutes, and government offices in the United Sttes, England, Germany, and Italy. A total of 24 researchers have been assigned to map 10 quadrangles on Ganymede, 15 to m

Channels and valleys on Mars

The discovery of channels, valleys, and related features of aqueous origin on Mars is of profound importance in comparative planetology. Models of the evolution of planetary surfaces and atmospheres must be reconciled with the diversity, abundance, and origins of channels and valleys on Mars. The term “channel” is properly restricted to those Martian troughs that display at least some evidence of

Chryse Basin channels: low-gradients and ponded flows.

Gradients on the floors of the Martian outflow channels that are derived from radar-elevation profiles across Lunae Planum and Chryse Basin have much lower values than those obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's topographic map. Whereas the gradients of Maja and Ares Valles are similar to those of the catastrophic flood channels in the Scablands of Washington State, the gradients of Simud and

Ice sculpture in the Martian outflow channels

Many landforms in Martian outflow channels have characteristics that suggest sculpture by glaciers, ice streams, or ice sheets. Viking Orbiter and terrestrial satellite images were examined at similar resolution to compare features of the Martian outflow channels to features produced by the movement of ice on earth. Many resemblances were found. They include the anastomoses, sinuosities, and U‐sha

Implementation of digital subtraction angiography with a synchrotron x-ray beam

The intense synchrotron radiation produced by wiggler magnets at electron storage rings provides a new source of x-rays highly suited to iodine K-edge digital subtraction angiography. The monochromaticity and tunability provide maximum sensitivity to intraarterial iodine and virtually eliminate contrast due to soft tissue and bone. Visualization of arteries, in particular the coronary arteries, by