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Did ice streams carve martian outflow channels?

Outflow channels on Mars1 are long sinuous linear depressions that occur mostly in the equatorial area (±30° lat.). They differ from small valley networks2 by being larger and arising full born from chaotic terrains. Outflow channels resemble terrestrial stream beds, and their origin has generally been attributed to water3–5 in catastrophic floods6,7 or mudflows8. The catastrophic-flood hypothesis

Mars and Earth: Comparison of cold-climate features

On Earth, glacial and periglacial features are common in areas of cold climate. On Mars, the temperature of the present-day surface is appropriate for permafrost, and the presence of water is suspected from data relating to the outgassing of the planet, from remote-sensing measurements over the polar caps and elsewhere on the Martian surface, and from recognition of fluvial morphological features

Grooved terrain on Ganymede

The icy crust of Ganymede comprises bright and dark areas. Investigation of Voyager 1 and 2 images has shown that bright terrain is grooved and separates dark polygons of cratered terrain. The grooved terrain contains alternating ridges and grooves in straight and curvilinear sets, which are locally interrupted by smooth patches and swaths. Cratered terrain, where 'it occurs in small wedges and sl

Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100–1000 ergs cm−2, sec−1, sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this v

Altitude-age relationships of the lunar maria

Altitudes and relative ages of mare surface units were compared to test if a systematic correlation in height of lava eruption surfaces and age might reflect a corresponding increase in depth of the magma chamber with time; in addition the altitudes were studied to shed light on the time and place of warping of mare surfaces. The laser altimeter data from the Apollo missions and relative age data

Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars.

Large landslides in the Martian equatorial troughs have been investigated with respect to morphology, geologic structure of the troughs, time of emplacement, similarity to terrestrial landslides, and origin and mechanism of transport. The morphologic variations of the landslides can be attributed mainly to their degree of confinement on trough floors. The huge size of many landslides is due to the

Relative age of Camelot crater and crater clusters near the Apollo 17 landing site

Topographic profiles and depth-diameter ratios from the crater Camelot and craters of the central cluster in the Apollo 17 landing area suggest that these craters are of the same age. Therefore, layers that can be recognized in the deep-drill core and that can be identified as ejecta deposits from Camelot or from the cluster craters should yield similar emplacement ages.

A large landslide on Mars

A large landslide deposit on the south wall of Gangis Chasma contains at least 100 billion m3of material that moved 60 km across the trough floor at a speed of more than 100 km/hr. The deposit consists of slump blocks at the head, hummocky material farther out, and a vast apron of longitudinally ridged material extending to the toe. The landslide deposit resembles many terrestrial ones but is much

Age of graben systems on the moon

The study focuses on the time of formation of the graben. An attempt is made to determine whether the graben are restricted to geologic units of certain ages, and whether and at what time graben formation ceased. It is shown that (1) most preserved graben formed considerably later than the impacts that formed the basins; (2) graben are faults that are reactivated along older basin concentric and r

Topography, structure, and mare ridges in southern Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum

The gross topography in southern Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum correlates with the buried structure and deposits of the Imbrium Basin and its rim, and many of the mare slopes may be depositional and reflect the pre-existing major features of the basin. Post-depositional, local distortion of the mare surface, however, is present and in many places associated with mare ridges. Many m

Crater clusters and light mantle at the Apollo 17 site: A result of secondary impact from Tycho

The morphologies of Tycho secondary craters and their ejecta deposits were studied using full-Moon, Lunar-Orbiter, and Apollo panoramic photographs. These data were compared with similar data for the secondary craters and light mantle of the Apollo 17 landing site. The results indicate that (1) the central crater cluster and the light mantle can be attributed to Tycho, (2) the dominant mechanism f

North polar region of Mars: Imaging results from Viking 2

During October 1976, the Viking 2 orbiter acquired approximately 700 high-resolution images of the north polar region of Mars. These images confirm the existence at the north pole of extensive layered deposits largely covered over with deposits of perennial ice. An unconformity within the layered deposits suggests a complex history of climate change during their time of deposition. A pole-girdling