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Geochemistry  

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Petrographic Thermal Indices Research

A petrographic thermal index is typically an organic matter indicator in sedimentary rocks that allows for estimations of burial temperature. Petrographic thermal indices include the commonly used proxy vitrinite reflectance as well as other approaches such as solid bitumen reflectance, fluorescence, micro-Raman, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. Measurements from these...
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Petrographic Thermal Indices Research

A petrographic thermal index is typically an organic matter indicator in sedimentary rocks that allows for estimations of burial temperature. Petrographic thermal indices include the commonly used proxy vitrinite reflectance as well as other approaches such as solid bitumen reflectance, fluorescence, micro-Raman, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. Measurements from these...
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Advancements in Geochemistry and Geomicrobiology of Energy Resources (AGGER)

The AGGER project’s purpose is to advance the understanding of geologic energy sources, generation, composition, movement, and production potential, including resource recovery from energy wastes.
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Advancements in Geochemistry and Geomicrobiology of Energy Resources (AGGER)

The AGGER project’s purpose is to advance the understanding of geologic energy sources, generation, composition, movement, and production potential, including resource recovery from energy wastes.
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Geochemistry of Energy Fuels Project

Since its establishment in 1879, USGS geoscientists have investigated the geochemistry of energy resources. Research conducted in the Geochemistry of Energy Fuels project continues this tradition. Goals include 1) understanding the geologic, geochemical, microbiological, and other factors that control production, quality, and composition of coal, petroleum, and nuclear fuels, and 2) predicting the...
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Geochemistry of Energy Fuels Project

Since its establishment in 1879, USGS geoscientists have investigated the geochemistry of energy resources. Research conducted in the Geochemistry of Energy Fuels project continues this tradition. Goals include 1) understanding the geologic, geochemical, microbiological, and other factors that control production, quality, and composition of coal, petroleum, and nuclear fuels, and 2) predicting the...
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Utilization of Carbon and other Energy Gases - Geologic Research and Assessments

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is utilized by industry to enhance oil recovery. Subsurface CO2 storage could significantly impact reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, but the economics and potential risks associated with the practice must be understood before implementing extensive programs or regulations. Utilization of other energy-related gases such as helium (He), if separated and concentrated...
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Utilization of Carbon and other Energy Gases - Geologic Research and Assessments

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is utilized by industry to enhance oil recovery. Subsurface CO2 storage could significantly impact reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, but the economics and potential risks associated with the practice must be understood before implementing extensive programs or regulations. Utilization of other energy-related gases such as helium (He), if separated and concentrated...
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Geochemistry of Energy Fuels Task

Geologic and geochemical processes that impact fuel quality, quantity, and availability can be best understood by utilizing a range of approaches, including, but not limited to isotopic signatures, inorganic and organic analyses, and neutron scattering techniques. Current work focuses on using neutron scattering to understand how fluids are stored and flow through tight continuous reservoirs and...
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Geochemistry of Energy Fuels Task

Geologic and geochemical processes that impact fuel quality, quantity, and availability can be best understood by utilizing a range of approaches, including, but not limited to isotopic signatures, inorganic and organic analyses, and neutron scattering techniques. Current work focuses on using neutron scattering to understand how fluids are stored and flow through tight continuous reservoirs and...
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Vitrinite Reflectance Service

Vitrinite is a maceral group that is derived from the remains of woody material from vascular plants and is composed of the thermally evolved products of lignin and cellulose. A maceral group is a set of organic matter types with similar properties and appearance. Vitrinite reflectance measures the percentage of incident light that is reflected from the surface of vitrinite as calibrated to a...
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Vitrinite Reflectance Service

Vitrinite is a maceral group that is derived from the remains of woody material from vascular plants and is composed of the thermally evolved products of lignin and cellulose. A maceral group is a set of organic matter types with similar properties and appearance. Vitrinite reflectance measures the percentage of incident light that is reflected from the surface of vitrinite as calibrated to a...
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Thermal Indices Innovation

Thermal indices innovation focuses on the utilization of correlative microscopy and spectroscopy techniques for innovative approaches to advance the understanding of thermal indices development. These techniques include correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and atomic force microscopy and infrared microscopy (AFM-IR), among others. Use of...
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Thermal Indices Innovation

Thermal indices innovation focuses on the utilization of correlative microscopy and spectroscopy techniques for innovative approaches to advance the understanding of thermal indices development. These techniques include correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and atomic force microscopy and infrared microscopy (AFM-IR), among others. Use of...
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Hydrous Pyrolysis and Kerogen Conversion

Hydrous pyrolysis (HP) experimentation is a laboratory method used to thermally mature organic-rich sedimentary rocks. It simulates petroleum generation in the closest available analogue to that of a natural system. Artificial maturation of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) to petroleum allows for the examination of its molecular chemistry to address the issue of anomalous reflection measurement...
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Hydrous Pyrolysis and Kerogen Conversion

Hydrous pyrolysis (HP) experimentation is a laboratory method used to thermally mature organic-rich sedimentary rocks. It simulates petroleum generation in the closest available analogue to that of a natural system. Artificial maturation of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) to petroleum allows for the examination of its molecular chemistry to address the issue of anomalous reflection measurement...
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Standardization of Petrographic Thermal Indices

Advent of the shale revolution since about 2005 caused increased demand for reliable petrographic measurements of thermal maturity in shale via vitrinite reflectance, which has long been considered the gold standard approach. The first standardized methodology for vitrinite reflectance measurement in shale became available in 2011. Subsequent interlaboratory studies demonstrated that significant...
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Standardization of Petrographic Thermal Indices

Advent of the shale revolution since about 2005 caused increased demand for reliable petrographic measurements of thermal maturity in shale via vitrinite reflectance, which has long been considered the gold standard approach. The first standardized methodology for vitrinite reflectance measurement in shale became available in 2011. Subsequent interlaboratory studies demonstrated that significant...
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Molecular Fingerprinting of Energy Materials

The chemical composition of complex solid organic matter (OM) from sedimentary reservoirs is a key parameter in the generation of hydrocarbon fuels. Vibrational spectroscopies such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman have been widely applied to understand the molecular make-up of these hydrocarbon precursors, as well as provide links to their thermal histories via correlation to proven...
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Molecular Fingerprinting of Energy Materials

The chemical composition of complex solid organic matter (OM) from sedimentary reservoirs is a key parameter in the generation of hydrocarbon fuels. Vibrational spectroscopies such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman have been widely applied to understand the molecular make-up of these hydrocarbon precursors, as well as provide links to their thermal histories via correlation to proven...
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NORM Byproducts of Energy Resources

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) is found in waste produced during the extraction of uranium, phosphate, rare earth elements (REE), coal, oil and gas resources. The focus of this effort is to understand the potential for byproduct recovery of U-235 and Th-232, the fissionable isotopes used to generate nuclear energy from wastes produced during energy resource development. The NORM...
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NORM Byproducts of Energy Resources

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) is found in waste produced during the extraction of uranium, phosphate, rare earth elements (REE), coal, oil and gas resources. The focus of this effort is to understand the potential for byproduct recovery of U-235 and Th-232, the fissionable isotopes used to generate nuclear energy from wastes produced during energy resource development. The NORM...
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Byproducts of Energy Fuels

This task provides detailed information on the use and resource potential of energy by-products, as well as controls on the potential mobility of contaminants resulting from transport, storage, and disposal of these byproducts. Specific topics investigated include 1) transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants during storage and disposal of waste coal and coal combustion byproducts...
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Byproducts of Energy Fuels

This task provides detailed information on the use and resource potential of energy by-products, as well as controls on the potential mobility of contaminants resulting from transport, storage, and disposal of these byproducts. Specific topics investigated include 1) transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants during storage and disposal of waste coal and coal combustion byproducts...
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