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Complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus opacus strain MoAcy1 (DSM 44186), an aerobic acetylenotroph isolated from soil

We report the genome of Rhodococcus opacus strain MoAcy1 (DSM 44186), an aerobic soil isolate capable of using acetylene as its primary carbon and energy source (acetylenotrophy). The genome is composed of a single circular chromosome of ∼8 Mbp and two closed plasmids, with a G+C content of 67.3%.

Vitrinite reflectance analysis

Vitrinite is a maceral group (a set of organic matter types with similar properties and appearance) derived from the remains of woody material from vascular plants and is composed of the thermally evolved products of lignin and cellulose. Vitrinite is the dominant component of humic coal and is found as a minor component dispersed into sedimentary rocks, especially mudrocks, the primary source roc

Towards a holistic sulfate-water-O2 triple oxygen isotope systematics

Triple oxygen isotope (∆17O with δ18O) signals of H2O and O2 found in sulfate of oxidative weathering origin offer promising constraints on modern and ancient weathering, hydrology, atmospheric gas concentrations, and bioproductivity. However, interpretations of the sulfate-water-O2 system rely on assuming fixed oxygen-isotope fractionations between sulfate and water, which, contrastingly, are sho

Assessment of undiscovered copper resources of the world, 2015

The U.S. Geological Survey completed the first-ever global assessment of undiscovered copper resources for the two most significant sources of global copper supply: porphyry copper deposits and sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. The geology-based study identified 236 areas for undiscovered copper in 11 regions of the world. Estimated amounts of undiscovered copper resources are reported

Capacity assessment for Earth Monitoring, Analysis, and Prediction (EarthMAP) and future integrated monitoring and predictive science at the U.S. Geological Survey

Executive SummaryManagers of our Nation’s resources face unprecedented challenges driven by the convergence of increasing, competing societal demands and a changing climate that affects the stability, vulnerability, and predictability of those resources. To help meet these challenges, the scientific community must take advantage of all available technologies, data, and integrative Earth systems mo

Oil and gas wastewater components alter streambed microbial community structure and function

The widespread application of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies expanded oil and gas (OG) development to previously inaccessible resources. A single OG well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, which is a mixture of brine produced from the fractured formations and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs). With thousands of wells completed each year, safe manag

Random forest

This entry defines and discusses the random forest machine learning algorithm. The algorithm is used to predict class or quantities for target variables using values of a set of predictor variables. It uses decision trees that are generated from bootstrap sampling of the training data set to create a "forest". The entry discusses the algorithm steps, the interpretative tools of the resulting mode

Constraints on triple oxygen isotope kinetics

Isotopic disequilibrium is not as well constrained as equilibrium, hindering interpretation of isotopic variations. Kinetic isotope effects, a subset of disequilibrium, are common in nature and have been assumed to be distinct from equilibrium and mass independent isotope effects based on underdeveloped criteria. Using basic physical principles, we provide needed mechanistic constraints on mass-de

Correspondence analysis for mineral commodity research: An example workflow for mineralized calderas, southwest United States

Historical mine and mineral deposit datasets are routinely used to inform quantitative mineral assessment models, but they also can contain a wealth of supplementary qualitative information that is generally underutilized. We present a workflow that uses correspondence analysis, an exploratory tool commonly applied to multivariate abundance data, to better utilize qualitative data in these histori

Multilayer perceptrons (MLPs)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are adaptable systems that can solve problems that are difficult to describe with a mathematical relationship. They seek relationships between different types of datasets with their abilities to learn either with supervision or without. ANNs recognize patterns between input and output space and generalize solutions, in a way simulating the human brain’s learning e

Method for compiling temporally and spatially aggregated data on hydraulic fracturing—Treatments and wells

This report provides a step-by-step method for compiling hydraulic fracturing data in the United States from the IHS Markit, 2019, U.S. Well History and Production Relational Database. Data on hydraulically fractured wells include their location (geologic province, State, county), well type (oil or gas), orientation (directional, horizontal, or vertical), spud date, completion date and the hydraul


In statistics, a realization is an observed value of a random variable (Gubner 2006). In mathematical geology, the most important realizations are those in the form of maps of spatially correlated regionalized variables.Spatial description of random variables within complex domains and making certain decisions about those require complete knowledge of the attribute of interest at each point in spa