The sulfuric acid droplets in vog have the corrosive properties of dilute battery acid. When vog mixes directly with moisture on the leaves of plants it can cause severe chemical burns, which can damage or kill the plants. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas can also diffuse through leaves and dissolve to form acidic conditions within plant tissue. Farmers on Hawai`i Island, particularly in the Ka`u District, have reported losses to agricultural crops and flowers as a result of high SO2 emissions from a gas vent at Kīlauea's summit. The Hawaii Department of Agriculture has not received any reports of vog-related problems with animals.
- Hawaii Interagency Vog Information Dashboard
- Volcanic gases can be harmful to health, vegetation, and infrastructure
- Volcanic gas hazards from Kilauea Volcano