Exposures and potential health implications of contaminant mixtures in linked source water, finished drinking water, and tapwater from public-supply drinking water systems in Minneapolis/St. Paul area, USA
Continued improvements in drinking-water quality characterization and treatment/distribution infrastructure are required to address the expanding number of documented environmental contaminants. To better understand the variability in contaminant exposures from the drinking water resource (surface and groundwater), through the distribution process, to the point-of-use (tapwater), in 2019 a synoptic assessment of broad chemical exposures was conducted in system-specific source waters, finished drinking water and service-area tapwater from 10 drinking water treatment facilities in the greater Minneapolis/St. Paul area of Minnesota, United States. Source water, finished water (collected pre-distribution in the treatment facility), and tapwater samples were analyzed for 465 unique organic compounds, 34 inorganic constituents, and 3 field parameters as well as in vitro estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid bioactivities. Mixtures of organic and inorganic contaminants were prevalent in source water, finished water, and tapwater samples, indicating the continued need for broad assessments of mixed contaminant exposures to characterize potential drinking-water human health outcomes. Contaminant concentrations were similar among drinking water sources and no exceedances of Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level(s) (MCL) were observed in any treated sample (finished water or tapwater) in this study. No treated sample contained estrogenic, androgenic, or glucocorticoid activity at concentrations that may cause adverse human health effects. However, there were multiple exceedances of non-enforceable MCL goal(s) (MCLG), and other health advisories combined with frequent exceedances of benchmark-based hazard indices in both finished water and tapwater samples. These results indicate that exposure to contaminant mixtures is a potential public health concern underscoring our continued efforts to assess contaminant mixture exposures at the drinking-water point of consumption using a broad analytical scope.
|Exposures and potential health implications of contaminant mixtures in linked source water, finished drinking water, and tapwater from public-supply drinking water systems in Minneapolis/St. Paul area, USA
|Kelly L. Smalling, Paul M. Bradley, Kristin M. Romanok, Sarah M. Elliott, Jane de Lambert, Michael J. Focazio, Stephanie Gordon, James L. Gray, Leslie K. Kanagy, Michelle Hladik, Keith Loftin, R. Blaine McCleskey, Elizabeth Medlock-Kakaley, Mary C. Cardon, Nicola Evans, Christopher P. Weis
|Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|New Jersey Water Science Center