Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,701
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Year Published: 2022

Evidence-based guidelines for protective actions and earthquake early warning systems

Earthquake early warning systems (EEW) are becoming increasingly available or in development throughout the world. With public alerting in Mexico, Japan, Taiwan, and parts of the United States, it is important to provide evidence-based recommendations for protective action so people can protect themselves when they receive an alert. Best-practice...

McBride, Sara K.; Smith, Hollie; Morgoch, Meredith; Sumy, Danielle; Jenkins, Mariah; Peek, Lori; Bostrom, Ann; Baldwin, Dare; Reddy, Beth; de Groot, Robert M.; Becker, Julia; Johnston, David; Wood, Michelle

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Year Published: 2021

Local variations in broadband sensor installations: Orientations, sensitivities, and noise levels

As seismologists continue to place more stringent demands on data quality, accurately described metadata are becoming increasingly important. In order to better constrain the orientation and sensitivities of seismometers deployed in U.S. Geological Survey networks, the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has recently begun identifying true...

Ringler, Adam T.; Anthony, Robert E.

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Year Published: 2021

An evaluation of the timing accuracy of global and regional seismic stations and networks

Clock accuracy is a basic parameter of any seismic station and has become increasingly important for seismology as the community seeks to refine structures and dynamic processes of the Earth. In this study, we measure the arrival time differences of moderate repeating earthquakes with magnitude 5.0–5.9 in the time range of 1991–2017 at the same...

Yang, Ying; Song, Xiaodong; Ringler, Adam T.

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Year Published: 2021

Seven decades of coastal change at Barter Island, Alaska: Exploring the importance of waves and temperature on erosion of coastal permafrost bluffs

Observational data of coastal change over much of the Arctic are limited largely due to its immensity, remoteness, harsh environment, and restricted periods of sunlight and ice-free conditions. Barter Island, Alaska, is one of the few locations where an extensive, observational dataset exists, which enables a detailed assessment of the trends and...

Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li H.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Engelstad, Anita C

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Year Published: 2021

The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Societal Consequences

The HayWired earthquake scenario, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), anticipates the impacts of a hypothetical moment magnitude 7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault. The fault runs along the east side of California’s San Francisco Bay and is among the most active and dangerous in the United States, passing through a densely urbanized and...

Wein, Anne M.; Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Kroll, Cynthia; Strauss, Jennifer A.; Witkowski, David; Cox, Dale A.
Wein, A.M., Jones, J.L., Johnson, L.A., Kroll, C., Strauss, J., Witkowski, D., Cox, D.A., 2021, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Societal Consequences: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2021–3054, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20213054.

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Year Published: 2021

Density structure of the island of Hawai’i and the implications for gravity-driven motion of the south flank of Kilauea volcano

The discovery that large landslides dissected the Hawaiian islands, scattering debris over thousands of square kilometers of seafloor, changed our ideas of island growth and evolution. The evidence is consistent with catastrophic flank collapse during volcano growth, and draws our focus to the currently active island of Hawai’i, the volcanoes...

Denlinger, Roger P.; Flinders, Ashton F.

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Year Published: 2021

Modeling seismic network detection thresholds using production picking algorithms

Estimating the detection threshold of a seismic network (the minimum magnitude earthquake that can be reliably located) is a critical part of network design and can drive network maintenance efforts. The ability of a station to detect an earthquake is often estimated by assuming the spectral amplitude for an earthquake of a given size, assuming an...

Wilson, David C.; Wolin, Emily; Yeck, William L.; Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam T.

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Year Published: 2021

Active neutron interrogation experiments and simulation verification using the SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma-Ray spectrometer (SINGR) for geosciences

We present a new SIngle-scintillator Neutron and Gamma Ray spectrometer (SINGR) instrument for use with both passive and active measurement techniques. Here we discuss the application of SINGR for planetary exploration missions, however, hydrology, nuclear non-proliferation, and resource prospecting are all potential areas where the instrument...

Heffern, Lena E.; Hardgrove, Craig J.; Parsons, Ann; Johnson, E. B.; Starr, R.; Stoddard, G.; Blakeley, R. E.; Prettyman, T.; Gabriel, Travis Saint James; Barnaby, H.; Christian, J.; Unzueta, M.A.; Tate, C.; Martin, A.; Moersch, J.

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Year Published: 2021

Weakening of peridotite sheared at hydrothermal conditions

We conducted triaxial friction tests at hydrothermal conditions (25°C–350°C) on gouges of peridotite and its principal mineral constituents olivine and orthopyroxene. Pore-fluid chemistry was varied by the use of peridotite, granite, or quartzite driving blocks (representing wall rock) housing the gouge layer. Samples sheared at slow rates...

Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.

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Year Published: 2021

Refinements to the Graves–Pitarka kinematic rupture generator, including a dynamically consistent slip‐rate function, applied to the 2019 Mw 7.1 Ridgecrest earthquake

The main objective of this study is to develop physics‐based constraints on the spatiotemporal variation of the slip‐rate function using a simplified dynamic rupture model. First, we performed dynamic rupture modeling of the 2019 Mw">MwMw 7.1 Ridgecrest, California, earthquake, to analyze the effects of depth‐dependent stress and...

Pitarka, Arben; Graves, Robert; Irikura, Kojiro; Miyakoshi, Ken; Wu, Changjiang; Kawase, Hiroshi; Rodgers, Arthur; McCallen, David

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Year Published: 2021

Hazard characterization for alternative intensity measures using the total probability theorem

Since their inception in the 1980s, simplified procedures for the analysis of liquefaction hazards have typically characterized seismic loading using a combination of peak ground acceleration and earthquake magnitude. However, more recent studies suggest that certain evolutionary intensity measures (IMs) such as Arias intensity or cumulative...

Greenfield, Michael W.; Makdisi, Andrew James

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Year Published: 2021

Past, present, and future of Mars Polar Science: Outcomes and outlook from the 7th International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration

Mars Polar Science is a subfield of Mars science that encompasses all studies of the cryosphere of Mars and its interaction with the Martian environment. Every 4 yr, the community of scientists dedicated to this subfield meets to discuss new findings and debate open issues in the International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration (...

Becerra, Patricio; Smith, Isaac B.; Hibbard, Shannon M; Andres, Chimira; Bapst, Jonathan; Bramson, Ali; Buhler, Peter; Coronato, Andrea; Diniega, Serina; Emmett, Jeremy; Grau Galofre, Anna; Herny, Clemence; Kahre, Melinda; Knightly, J. Paul; Nerozzi, Stefano; Pascuzzo, Alyssa; Portyankina, Ganna; Rabassa, Jorge; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy N.; Whitten, Jennifer L; Yoldi, Zuriñe