Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 6,190
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Year Published: 2020

Geomagnetism Program research plan, 2020–2024

The Geomagnetism Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors geomagnetic field variation through operation of a network of observatories across the United States and its territories, and it pursues scientific research needed to estimate and assess geomagnetic and geoelectric hazards. Over the next five years (2020–2024 inclusive) and in...

Love, Jeffrey J.; Kelbert, Anna; Murphy, Benjamin S.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Lewis, Kristen A.
Love, J.J., Kelbert, A., Murphy, B.S., Rigler, E.J., and Lewis, K.A., 2020, Geomagnetism Program research plan, 2020–2024: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1469, 19 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1469.

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Year Published: 2020

Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)

 This Fact Sheet describes post-earthquake products and tools provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products that provide situational awareness immediately after significant earthquakes.

Wald, Lisa A.
Wald, L.A., 2020, Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS): U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020–3042, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203042.

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Year Published: 2020

Developing post-alert messaging for ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the United States of America

As ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the U.S., begins its transition to operational public alerting, we explore how post-alert messaging might represent system performance. Planned post-alert messaging can provide timely, crucial information to both emergency managers and ShakeAlert operators as well as...

McBride, Sara; Bostrom, Ann; Sutton, Jeannette; deGroot, Robert Michael; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Terbush, Brian; Bodin, Paul; Dixon, Maximilian; Holland, Emily; Arba, Ryan; Laustsen, Paul C.; Liu, Sophia; Vinci, Margaret

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Year Published: 2020

Evaluating stereo DTM quality at Jezero Crater, Mars with HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE images

We have used a high-precision, high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) of the NASA Mars 2020 rover Perseverance landing site in Jezero crater based on mosaicked images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) camera as a reference dataset to evaluate DTMs based on Mars Express High...

Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.; Smith, Ethan; Mayer, David; Hare, Trent M.; Gwinner, Klaus

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Year Published: 2020

Increasing threat of coastal groundwater hazards from sea-level rise in California

Projected sea-level rise will raise coastal water tables, resulting in groundwater hazards that threaten shallow infrastructure and coastal ecosystem resilience. Here we model a range of sea-level rise scenarios to assess the responses of water tables across the diverse topography and climates of the California coast. With 1 m of sea-level rise,...

Befus, K.M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel J.; Finzi Hart, Juliette; Voss, Clifford I.

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Year Published: 2020

Constraining central Himalayan (Nepal) fault geometry through integrated thermochronology and thermokinematic modeling

Constraining the subsurface structural geometry of the central Himalaya continues to prove difficult, even after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake and the resulting insights into the trajectory of the Main Himalayan thrust (MHT). To this end, we apply a thermokinematic model to evaluate four possible balanced cross section geometries based on three...

Ghoshal, Surydoy; McQuarrie, Nadine; Robinson, Delores; Adhikari, D.P.; Morgan, Leah E.; Ehlers, Todd A.

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Year Published: 2020

A stress-similarity triggering model for aftershocks of the MW6.4 and MW7.1 Ridgecrest earthquakes

The July 2019 Mw">Mw 6.4 and 7.1 Ridgecrest earthquakes triggered numerous aftershocks, including clusters of off‐fault aftershocks in an extensional stepover of the Garlock fault, near the town of Olancha, and near Panamint Valley. The locations of the off‐fault aftershocks are consistent with the stress‐similarity model of triggering,...

Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

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Year Published: 2020

Are the stress drops of small earthquakes good predictors of the stress drops of moderate-to-large earthquakes?

The stress drops of small earthquakes often exhibit spatial patterns of variability. If moderate and large earthquakes follow the same spatial patterns, the stress drops of possible future damaging earthquakes could be better predicted by considering the stress drops of nearby small events. Better stress drop predictability could reduce ground-...

Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

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Year Published: 2020

Landslides after wildfire: Initiation, magnitude, and mobility

In the semiarid Southwestern USA, wildfires are commonly followed by runoff-generated debris flows because wildfires remove vegetation and ground cover, which reduces soil infiltration capacity and increases soil erodibility. At a study site in Southern California, we initially observed runoff-generated debris flows in the first year following...

Rengers, Francis K.; McGuire, Luke; Oakley, Nina S.; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Tang, Hui

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Year Published: 2020

Ancient Martian aeolian sand dune deposits recorded in the stratigraphy of Valles Marineris and implications for past climates

Aeolian sediment transport, deposition, and erosion have been ongoing throughout Mars's history. This record of widespread aeolian processes is preserved in landforms and geologic units that retain important clues about past environmental conditions including wind patterns. In this study we describe landforms within Melas Chasma, Valles Marineris...

Chojnacki, Matthew; Fenton, Lori K.; Weintraub, Aaron R; Edgar, Lauren A.; Jodhpurkar, Mohini Jeetendra; Edwards, Christopher S.

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Year Published: 2020

Focused fluid flow along the Nootka Fault Zone and continental slope, Explorer-Juan de Fuca plate boundary

Geophysical and geochemical data indicate there is abundant fluid expulsion in the Nootka fault zone (NFZ) between the Juan de Fuca and Explorer plates and the Nootka continental slope. Here we combine observations from > 20 years of investigations to demonstrate the nature of fluid-flow along the NFZ, which is the seismically most active...

Riedel, M.; Rohr, K.M.M.; Spence, G.D.; Kelley, D.; Delaney, J.; Lapham, L.; Pohlman, John; Hyndman, R.D.; Willoughby, E.C.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismicity induced by massive wastewater injection near Puerto Gaitán, Colombia

Seven years after the beginning of a massive wastewater injection project in eastern Colombia, local earthquake activity increased significantly. The field operator and the Colombian Geological Survey immediately reinforced the monitoring of the area. Our analysis of the temporal evolution of the seismic and injection data together with our...

Molina, I; Velasquez, J.S.; Rubinstein, Justin; García-Aristizabal, A; Dionicio, V