Natural Hazards

Publications

Filter Total Items: 5,444
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Year Published: 2019

The roles of flow acceleration and deceleration in sediment suspension in the surf zone

Prediction of sediment suspension in the surf zone remains elusive. We explore how suspended sediment concentration at 19 cm above the bed in the mid-surf zone during a storm is influenced by flow acceleration and deceleration. There is a tendency for higher suspended sediment concentrations during onshore flow, with decelerating onshore flows...

Jaffe, Bruce E.; La Selle, Seanpaul
Jaffe, B.E., and La Selle, S., 2019, The roles of flow acceleration and deceleration in sediment suspension in the surf zone: in Wang, P., Rosati, J.D., and Vallee, M., eds., Coastal Sediments 2019, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference: World Scientific, Hackensack, New Jersey, p. 565-576, https://doi.org/10.1142/9789811204487_0050.

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Year Published: 2019

Vertical coseismic offsets from differential high-resolution stereogrammetric DSMs: The 2013 Baluchistan, Pakistan earthquake

The recent proliferation of high-resolution (< 3-m spatial resolution) digital topography datasets opens a spectrum of geodetic applications in differential topography, including the quantification of coseismic vertical displacement fields. Most investigations of coseismic vertical displacements to date rely, in part, on pre- or post-event...

Barnhart, William D.; Gold, Ryan D.; Shea, Hannah N.; Peterson, Katherine E.; Briggs, Richard W.; Harbor, David J.

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Year Published: 2019

Radiometric ages of volcanic rocks on the fort rock dome and in the aquarius mountains, Yavapai and Mohave Counties, Arizona

The Fort Rock dome, in Yavapai County, Ariz., is a roughly circular geologic structure in plan view, 2.5 km in diameter, that is similar in many ways to an impact crater; however, it is a structural dome caused by a potassic mafic intrusion at depth, and the crater-like depression in its center is erosional in origin. The Aquarius Mountains, west...

Fuis, Gary S.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Sullivan, Katie
Fuis, G.S., Calvert, A., and Sullivan, K., 2019, Radiometric ages of volcanic rocks on the Fort Rock dome and in the Aquarius Mountains, Yavapai and Mohave counties, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019–1038, 18 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20191038.

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Year Published: 2019

Optimizing an inner-continental shelf geologic framework investigation through data repurposing and machine learning

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have collected approximately 5,400 km2 of geophysical and hydrographic data on the Atlantic continental shelf between Delaware and Virginia over the past decade and a half. Although originally acquired for different objectives, the comprehensive coverage...

Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Brothers, Laura L.; Sweeney, Ed

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Year Published: 2019

Relationships between regional coastal land cover distributions and elevation reveal data uncertainty in a sea-level rise impacts model

Understanding land loss or resilience in response to sea-level rise (SLR) requires spatially extensive and continuous datasets to capture landscape variability. We investigate sensitivity and skill of a model that predicts dynamic response likelihood to SLR across the northeastern U.S. by exploring several data inputs and outcomes. Using...

Lentz, Erika E.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thieler, E. Robert

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Year Published: 2019

Evaluation of ground motion models for USGS seismic hazard forecasts: Induced and tectonic earthquakes in the Central and Eastern U.S.

Ground motion model (GMM) selection and weighting introduces a significant source of uncertainty in United States Geological Survey (USGS) seismic hazard models. The increase in moderate moment magnitude induced earthquakes (Mw 4 to 5.8) in Oklahoma and Kansas since 2009, due to increased wastewater injection related to oil and gas production (...

McNamara, Daniel E.; Petersen, Mark D.; Thompson, Eric M.; Powers, Peter M.; Shumway, Allison; Hoover, Susan M.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Wolin, Emily

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Year Published: 2019

Rigorously valuing the role of U.S. coral reefs in coastal hazard risk reduction

The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by increasing the exposure of coastal communities to flooding hazards. The protective services of these natural defenses are not assessed in the same rigorous economic terms as artificial defenses, such as seawalls, and therefore often are not considered in decision making...

Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reguero, Borja G.; Cole, Aaron D.; Lowe, Erik; Shope, James B.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Nickel, Barry A.; McCall, Robert T.; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Beck, Michael W.
Storlazzi, C.D., Reguero, B.G., Cole, A.D., Lowe, E., Shope, J.B., Gibbs, A.E., Nickel, B.A., McCall, R.T., van Dongeren, A.R., and Beck, M.W., 2019, Rigorously valuing the role of U.S. coral reefs in coastal hazard risk reduction: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019–1027, 42 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20191027.

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Year Published: 2019

Formation of pedestalled, relict lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

Surface debris covers much of the western portion of the McMurdo Ice Shelf and has a strong influence on the local surface albedo and energy balance. Differential ablation between debris-covered and debris-free areas creates an unusual heterogeneous surface of topographically low, high-ablation, and topographically raised (‘pedestalled’), low-...

MacDonald, Grant J; Banwell, Alison F; Willis, Ian C; Mayer, David; Goodsell, Becky; MacAyeal, Douglas R

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Year Published: 2019

Wildfire as a catalyst for hydrologic and geomorphic change

Wildfire has been a constant presence on the Earth since at least the Silurian period, and is a landscape-scale catalyst that results in a step-change perturbation for hydrologic systems, which ripples across burned terrain, shaping the geomorphic legacy of watersheds. Specifically, wildfire alters two key landscape properties: (1) overland flow,...

Rengers, Francis K.

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Year Published: 2019

Role of tidal wetland stability in lateral fluxes of particulate organic matter and carbon

Tidal wetland fluxes of particulate organic matter and carbon (POM, POC) are important terms in global budgets but remain poorly constrained. Given the link between sediment fluxes and wetland stability, POM and POC fluxes should also be related to stability. We measured POM and POC fluxes in eight microtidal salt marsh channels, with net POM...

Ganju, Neil Kamal; Defne, Zafer; Elsey Quirk, Tracy; Moriarty, Julia M.

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Year Published: 2019

Analysis and visualization of coastal ocean model data in the cloud

The traditional flow of coastal ocean model data is from High Performance Computing (HPC) centers to the local desktop, or to a file server where just the data needed can be extracted via services such as OPeNDAP. Analysis and visualization is then conducted using local hardware and software. This requires moving large amounts of data across the...

Signell, Richard P.; Pothina, Dharhas

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Year Published: 2019

Stratigraphic and structural relations in trench exposures and geomorphology at the Big Burn, Lily Lake, and Lester Ranch sites, Bear River Fault Zone, Utah and Wyoming

This report provides trench photomosaics, logs and related site information, age data, and earthquake event evidence from three paleoseismic trench sites on the Bear River Fault Zone. Our motivation for studying the Bear River Fault Zone—a nascent normal fault in the Rocky Mountains east of the Basin and Range physiographic province—is twofold: (1...

Hecker, Suzanne; Duross, Christopher; Schwartz, David P.; Cinti, Francesca R.; Civico, Riccardo; Lund, William R.; Hiscock, Adam I.; West, Michael W.; Wilcox, Tarka; Stoller, Alivia R.
Hecker, S., DuRoss, C.B., Schwartz, D.P., Cinti, F.R., Civico, R., Lund, W.R., Hiscock, A.I., West, M.W., Wilcox, T., and Stoller, A.R., 2019, Stratigraphic and structural relations in trench exposures and geomorphology at the Big Burn, Lily Lake, and Lester Ranch sites, Bear River Fault Zone, Utah and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3430, 8 p., 3 sheets, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3430.