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Rigorously valuing the impact of Hurricanes Irma and Maria on coastal hazard risks in Florida and Puerto Rico

The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by increasing the exposure of coastal communities to flooding hazards. In the United States, the physical protective services provided by coral reefs were recently assessed in social and economic terms, with the annual protection provided by U.S. coral reefs off the coasts of the State of Florida and the Commonwealth of Pu
Curt D. Storlazzi, Borja G. Reguero, T. Shay Viehman, Kristen A. Cumming, Aaron Cole, James B. Shope, Sarah H. Groves, Camila Gaido L., Barry A. Nickel, Michael W. Beck

Nearshore microfossil assemblages in a Caribbean reef environment show variable rates of recovery following Hurricane Irma

Modern microfossil distributions reflect site-specific habitats and provide an opportunity to assess sediment transport pathways in the nearshore environment. When applied to overwash deposits in the geological record, they provide insight into sediment provenance and transport, factors important for understanding patterns of frequency and intensity of past storms and tsunamis. Modern distribution
Stephen Mitchell, Jessica Pilarczyk, Michaela Spiske, Bruce E. Jaffe

Land-based sediment sources and transport to southwest Puerto Rico coral reefs after Hurricane Maria, May 2017 to June 2018

The effects of runoff from land on nearshore ecosystems, including coral reef communities, are influenced by both sediment supply and removal by coastal processes. Integrated studies across the land-sea interface describing sources and transport of terrestrial sediment and its nearshore fate allow reef protection initiatives to target key onshore and offshore areas. Geochemical signatures in the f
Renee K. Takesue, Clark E Sherman, Aaron O. Reyes, Olivia Cheriton, Natalia I. Ramirez, Roberto Viqueira Ríos, Curt Storlazzi

2018 hurricane and wildfire supplemental funding: USGS recovery activities

The Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Requirements Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-123), was signed by the President on February 9, 2018. This funding provided $42.2 million to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for equipment repair and replacement, high-resolution elevation data collection in both hurricane- and wildfire-impacted areas, and scientific studies and assessments that will

Jo Ellen Hinck, Joseph Stachyra

Preliminary peak stage and streamflow data at selected streamgaging stations in North Carolina and South Carolina for flooding following Hurricane Matthew, October 2016

The passage of Hurricane Matthew across the central and eastern regions of North Carolina and South Carolina during October 7–9, 2016, resulted in heavy rainfall that caused major flooding in parts of the eastern Piedmont in North Carolina and coastal regions of both States. Rainfall totals of 3 to 8 inches and 8 to more than 15 inches were widespread throughout the central and eastern regions, re
J. Curtis Weaver, Toby D. Feaster, Jeanne C. Robbins

Identifying and preserving high-water mark data

High-water marks provide valuable data for understanding recent and historical flood events. The proper collection and recording of high-water mark data from perishable and preserved evidence informs flood assessments, research, and water resource management. Given the high cost of flooding in developed areas, experienced hydrographers, using the best available techniques, can contribute high-qual
Todd A. Koenig, Jennifer L. Bruce, Jim O'Connor, Benton D. McGee, Robert R. Holmes, Ryan Hollins, Brandon T. Forbes, Michael S. Kohn, Mathew Schellekens, Zachary W. Martin, Marie C. Peppler

National assessment of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards: Southeast Atlantic Coast

Beaches serve as a natural barrier between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and natural resources. However, these dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During extreme storms, changes to beaches can be large, and the results are sometimes catastrophic. Lives may be lost, communities destroyed, and millions of dollars spent on rebuilding. Durin
Hilary F. Stockdon, Kara S. Doran, David M. Thompson, Kristin L. Sopkin, Nathaniel G. Plant

National assessment of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards--Gulf of Mexico

Sandy beaches provide a natural barrier between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and resources. However, these dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During a hurricane, these changes can be large and sometimes catastrophic. High waves and storm surge act together to erode beaches and inundate low-lying lands, putting inland communities at risk
Hilary F. Stockdon, Kara S. Doran, David M. Thompson, Kristin L. Sopkin, Nathaniel G. Plant, Asbury H. Sallenger

100-Year flood–it's all about chance

In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has a
Robert R. Holmes, Karen Dinicola

Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be l
Stephen Vandas, Lynne Mersfelder, Frank Farrar, Rigoberto Guardado France, Oscar Efraín González Yajimovich, Aurora R. Muñoz, María del C. Rivera