Charles Cravotta, III

Charles "Chuck" Cravotta is a research hydrologist whose projects focus on geochemical and hydrological processes that control water quality, particularly the sources, transport, and attenuation of metals and nutrients in watersheds and aquifers affected by mining.  Results apply to scientific and regulatory programs for the prevention and remediation of aquatic contamination. 

Biography

Education

1979 B.A. Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia

1986 M.S. Geochemistry and Mineralogy, Pennsylvania State University

1996 Ph.D. Geochemistry and Mineralogy, Pennsylvania State University

 

Professional Assignments

1987-present: Research Hydrologist, USGS, Pennsylvania Water Science Center, New Cumberland, Pennsylvania

1986-1987: Geochemist, IT Corporation, Monroeville, Pennsylvania

1982-1986:  Graduate Teaching and Research Assistant, Geosciences Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

1979-1982:  Geologist, Office of Scientific Publications, Geologic Division, USGS, Reston, Virginia

1979:  Geologic Technician, Virginia State Water Control Board, Alexandria, Virginia

 

Professional Affiliations and Certification

2011-2016: Associate Editor, Mine Water and the Environment Journal, International Mine Water Association

2001-2005: Adjunct Assistant Professor of Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

1995-present:  Registered Professional Geologist in Pennsylvania PG-002255-G

 

Awards and Recognition

The Society for Organic Petrology Dalaway J. Swain Award “Best Refereed Paper”, 2016

Department of Interior Partners in Conservation Award (AMDTreat Development Team), 2013

Top 50 Most-Cited Papers in "Applied Geochemistry" (2006-2011)

Department of Interior Superior Service Award, 2005

Schuylkill County Conservation Professional of the Year Award, 2003

Department of Interior Honor Award, 2000

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Award for Excellence, 1999

 

Publications

Cravotta, C.A. III, Sherrod, L., Galeone, D., Lehman, W., Ackman, T., and Kramer, A. (2017) Hydrological and geophysical investigation of streamflow losses and restoration strategies in an abandoned mine lands setting: Environmental and Engineering Geosciences (http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/EEG-1905)

Burrows, J.E., Cravotta, C.A. III, and Peters, S.C. (2017) Enhanced Al and Zn removal from coal-mine drainage during rapid oxidation and precipitation of Fe oxides at near-neutral  pH:  Applied Geochemistry, v. 78, p. 194-210. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2016.12.019)

Gross, E.L. and Cravotta, C.A. III, 2016, Groundwater quality for 75 domestic wells in Lycoming County, 2014: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5143, 72 p. (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20165143)

Bigham, J.M., and Cravotta, C.A. III (2016) Acid mine drainage, in Lal, R. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Soil Science (3rd), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis LLC, p. 6-10. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/E-ESS-120001582)

Zhou, Jianping; Wang, Hongmei; Cravotta, C.A. III; Dong, Qiang; and Xiang, Xing (2016) Dissolution of fluorapatite by Pseudomonas fluorescens P35 resulting in fluorine release: Geomicrobiology Journal (accepted; online 7/20/2016). (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2016.1204376)

Senior, L.A., Cravotta, C.A. III, and Sloto, R.A. (2016) Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5073, 136 p. (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20165073)

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Brady, K.B.C. (2015) Priority Pollutants in untreated and treated discharges from coal mines in Pennsylvania, U.S.A.: Applied Geochemistry, v. 62, p. 108-130. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.03.001[Download File]

Cravotta, C.A. III, Means, B., Arthur, W., McKenzie, R., and Parkhurst, D.L. (2015) AMDTreat 5.0+ with PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic chemical quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 34, p. 136-152 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10230-014-0292-6[Download File]

Burrows, J.E., Peters, S.C., and Cravotta C.A. III (2015) Temporal geochemical variations in above- and below-drainage coal mine discharge: Applied Geochemistry, v. 62, p. 84-95. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.02.010[Download File]

Cravotta, C.A. III (2015) Monitoring, field experiments, and geochemical modeling of Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in a stream dominated by net-alkaline coal-mine drainage, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.: Applied Geochemistry, v. 62, p. 96-107. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.02.009[Download File]

Cravotta, C.A. III , Goode, D.J., Bartles, M.D., Risser, D.W., Galeone, D.G. (2013) Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA: Hydrological Processes, v. 28 p. 3574-3601. [Link]

Lindsey, B.D., Zimmerman, T.M., Chapman, M.J., Cravotta, C.A. III, and Szabo, Zoltan (2014) The quality of our Nation’s waters—Water quality in the principal aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions, eastern United States, 1993–2009: U. S. Geological Survey Circular 1354, 120 p. (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/cir1354[Link]

Cull, Selby, Cravotta, C.A. III, Klinges, J.G., and Weeks, Chloe (2014) Spectral masking of goethite in abandoned mine drainage systems: Implications for Mars: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 403, p. 217–224. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.06.045[Link]

Wang, H., Gong, L., Cravotta, C.A. III, Yang, X., Tuovinen, O.H., Dong, H., and Fu, X. (2013) Inhibition of bacterial ferrous iron oxidation by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems: Journal of Hazardous Materials, vols. 244–245, p. 718-725. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Geroni, J.N. (2013) Effects of CO2 on pH and oxidation rates of Fe(II) in mining affected waters, in Brown A, Figueroa L, Wolkersdorfer Ch (eds) Reliable Mine Water Technology: International Mine Water Association 2013 Symposium, Golden, Colorado, vol II, p. 949-954. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A. III (2013) Apparent rates of Fe(II) oxidation and associated hydrogeochemical interactions in an extensively mined watershed, Pennsylvania, USA, in Brown A, Figueroa L, Wolkersdorfer Ch (eds) Reliable Mine Water Technology: International Mine Water Association 2013 Symposium, Golden, Colorado, vol I, p. 319-324. [Link]

Geroni, J.N., Cravotta, C.A. III, and Sapsford, D.J. (2012) Evolution of the chemistry of Fe bearing waters during CO2 degassing: Applied Geochemistry, v. 27, p. 2335-2347 [Link]

Han, Y., Wang, G., Cravotta, C.A., III, Hu, W., Bian, Y., Zhang, Z. and Liu, Y. (2012) Hydrogeochemical evolution of Ordovician limestone groundwater in Yanzhou, North China: Hydrological Processes[Link]

Goode, D.J., Cravotta, C.A., III, Hornberger, R.J., Hewitt, M.A., Hughes, R.E., Koury., D.J., and Eicholtz, L.W. (2011) Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania—Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5261, 54 p. [Link]

Liu, D., Wang, H., Dong, H., Qiua, X., Dong , X., and Cravotta, C.A., III (2011) Mineral transformations associated with goethite reduction by Methanosarcina barkeri: Chemical Geology, v. 288, p. 53-60.[Link]

Denver, J.M., Cravotta, C.A., III, Ator, S.W., and Lindsey, B.D. (2010) Contributions of phosphorus from groundwater to streams in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5176, 38 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Parkhurst, D.L., Means, B., McKenzie, R., and Arthur, W. (2010) Using the computer program AMDTreat with a PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume, in International Mine Water Association 2010 Symposium, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Parkhurst, D.L., Means, B., McKenzie, R., Morris, H., and Arthur, W. (2010) A geochemical module for “AMDTreat” to compute caustic quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume, in2010 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 1413-1436. [Link]

Sibrell, P.L., Cravotta, C.A., III, Lehman, W.G., and Reichert, W. (2010) Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater, in 2010 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 1085-1100. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Brightbill, R.A., and Langland, M.J. (2010) Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, Southern Anthracite Coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA--1. Streamwater-quality trends coinciding with the return of fish: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 29, p. 176-199. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2010) Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, Southern Anthracite Coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA--2. Performance of passive-treatment systems: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 29, p. 200-216. [Link]

Hammarstrom, J.M., Cravotta, C.A., III, Galeone, D., Jackson, J.J., and Dulong, F. (2009) Characterization of rock samples and mineralogical controls on leachates, in Hornberger, R.J., and Brady, K.B.C., eds., The development and interpretation of the ADTI-WP2 leaching column method (kinetic test procedure for the prediction of coal mine drainage quality) EPA method 1627: U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement CT-5-30040, p. 61-111, plus appendices 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2008) Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic, metal-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 23, p. 3404-3422. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Nantz, J.M. (2008) Quantity and quality of stream water draining mined areas of the upper Schuylkill River basin, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 2005-2007. In National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Richmond VA, New Opportunities to Apply Our Science June 14-19, 2008: American Society of Mining and Reclamation, p. 223-252. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Ward, S.J. (2008) Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA--Field evaluation: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 27, p. 67-85. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Ward, S.J., and Hammarstrom, J.M. (2008) Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA--Laboratory evaluation: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 27, p. 86-99. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2008) Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Constituent concentrations and correlations: Applied Geochemistry, v. 23, p. 166-202. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2008) Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Geochemical controls on constituent concentrations: Applied Geochemistry, v. 23, p. 203-226. [Link]

Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Weitzel, Jeffrey B.; Klemow, Kenneth M., 2007. Effects of Historical Coal Mining and Drainage from Abandoned Mines on Streamflow and Water Quality in Newport and Nanticoke Creeks, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 1999-2000. Geological Survey (U.S.) Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5061, Report: vi, 40 p.; 2 Appendices [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2007) Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: Mine Water and the Environment, v. 26, p. 128-149. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2006) Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in Anthracite and Bituminous coal-mine discharges, in 2006, 7th ICARD, March 26-30, 2006, St. Louis, Missouri: American Society of Mine Reclamation, p. 378-404. [Link]

Cravotta, Charles A., III, 2005. Assessment of characteristics and remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage : case study at Staple Bend Tunnel unit of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, 2004. Open-File Report 2005-1283, 58 p. [Link]

Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Brady, Keith; Cravotta, Charles A., III, 2005. Acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 2004. Open-File Report 2005-1148, 45 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C. A., III (2005) Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001. Geological Survey (U.S.) Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5291, Available online and on CD-ROM; Report: vi, 60 p. [Link]

Kirby, C.S., and Cravotta, C.A., III (2005) Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations: Applied Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 1920-1940. [Link]

Kirby, C.S., and Cravotta, C.A., III (2005) Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations: Applied Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 1941-1964. [Link]

Cravotta, C. A., III; Kirby, C. S. (2004). Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4311, 53 p.; CD-ROM [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Ward, S.J., Koury, D.J., and Koch, R.D. (2004) Optimization of limestone drains for long- term treatment of acidic mine drainage, Swatara Creek Basin, Schuylkill County, PA in 2004 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation and the 25th West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force, April 18-24, 2004: American Society of Mine Reclamation, p. 366-411.[Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Kirby, C.S. (2004) Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage--practical considerations, in 2004 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation and the 25th West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force, April 18-24, 2004: American Society of Mine Reclamation, p. 334- 365. [Link]

Kirby, C.S., and Cravotta, C.A., III (2004) Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage--theoretical considerations, in 2004 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation and the 25th West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force, April 18-24, 2004: American Society of Mine Reclamation, p. 1076- 1093. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2003) Size and performance of anoxic limestone drains to neutralize acidic mine drainage: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, p. 1277-1289. [Link]

Cravotta, C. A., III (2002) Use of stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur to identify sources of nitrogen in surface waters in the lower Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania. Water Supply Paper 2497, 99 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Watzlaf, G.R. (2002) Design and performance of limestone drains to increase pH and remove metals from acidic mine drainage, in Naftz, D.L., Morrison, S.J., Fuller, C.C., and Davis, J.A., eds., Handbook of groundwater remediation using permeable reactive barriers--Application to radionuclides, trace metals, and nutrients: San Diego, Ca., Academic Press, p. 19-66. [Link]

Williams, D.J., Bigham, J.M., Cravotta, C.A., III, Traina, S.J., Anderson, J.E., and Lyon, G. (2002) Assessing mine drainage pH from the color and spectral reflectance of chemical precipitates: Applied Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 1273-1286. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2002) New method to estimate longevity of anoxic limestone drains, in Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of American Society of Mining & Reclamation, Lexington, Kentucky, June 9-13, 2002: American Society of Mining & Reclamation, p. 1062-1064. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Bilger, M.D. (2001) Water-quality trends for a coal-mined watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania: Geochemistry, Exploration, Environment, Analysis, v. 1, p. 33-50. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Hilgar, G.M. (2000) Considerations for chemical monitoring at coal mines, in Kleinmann, R.L.P., ed., Prediction of water quality at surface coal mines: Acid Drainage Technology Initiative, Morgantown, W.V., National Mine Land Reclamation Center, p. 195-218. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (2000) Relations among sulfate, metals, sediment, and streamflow data for a stream draining a coal-mined watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: Littleton, Co., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., v. 1, p. 401-410. [Link]

Robbins, E.I., Anderson, J.E., Cravotta, C.A., III, Nord, G.L., Jr., and Slonecker, E.T. (2000) Multispectral signature variations in acidic versus near-neutral contaminated coal mine drainage in Pennsylvania, in Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage: Littleton, Co., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., v. 2, p. 1551-1559.

Landa, E.R., Cravotta, C.A., III, Naftz, D.L., Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K.,and Zielinski, R.A. (2000) Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration, in Gesell, T.F., and Simon, S.L., eds., Environmental exposure--Fact versus fiction: Technology, v. 7, nos. 2-4, p. 381-396.

Cravotta, C.A., III, Brady, K.B.C., Rose, A.W., and Douds, J.B. (1999) Frequency distribution of the pH of coal-mine drainage in Pennsylvania, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99- 4018A, p. 313-324. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Trahan, M.K. (1999) Limestone drains to increase pH and remove dissolved metals from acidic mine drainage: Applied Geochemistry, v. 14, no. 5, p 581-606. [Link]

Landa, E.R., Cravotta, C.A., III, Naftz, D.L., Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., and Zielinski, R.A. (1999) Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration, in Hylko, J.M., and Salyer, R.L., eds., Health Physics Society Proceedings- -Creation and future legacy of stockpile stewardship: Madison, Wisc., Medical Physics Publishing, 215- 220.

Rose, A.W., and Cravotta, C.A., III (1998) Geochemistry of coal-mine drainage, in Brady, K.B.C., Smith, M.W., and Schueck, J., eds., Coal Mine Drainage Prediction and Pollution Prevention in Pennsylvania: Harrisburg, Pa., Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 5600-BK-DEP2256, p. 1.1- 1.22. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (1998) Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage, in Proceedings 19th Annual Meeting West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force: Morgantown, W.Va., West Virginia University, 25 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (1998) Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine: Ground Water, v. 36, no. 1, p. 9-19. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (1988) A mass-balance approach for interpreting the chemical composition of a conduit spring in Blair County, Pennsylvania, in Proceedings of the Ground Water Geochemistry Conference: Dublin, Ohio, National Water Well Association, p. 103-126.

Cravotta, C.A., III (1997) Water, in Marcus, J.J., ed., Mining Environmental Handbook: London, Imperial College Press, Chapter 12, Section 12.3.2, p. 582-583.

Robbins, E.I., Cravotta, C.A., III, Savela, C.E., Nord, G.L., Jr., Balciauskas, K.A., and Belkin, H.E. (1997) Hydrobiogeochemical interactions on calcite and gypsum in “anoxic” limestone drains in West Virginia and Pennsylvania: University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., 1997 International Ash Utilization Symposium, p. 546-559.

Robbins, E.I., Anderson, J.E., Cravotta, C.A., III, Koury, D.J., Podwysocki, M.H., Stanton, M.R., and Growitz, D.J. (1996) Development and preliminary testing of microbial and spectral reflectance techniques to distinguish neutral from acidic drainages, in Chiang, S.-H., ed., Proceedings 13th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, v. 2, p. 768-775.

Guo, W., and Cravotta, C.A., III (1996) Oxygen transport and pyrite oxidation in unsaturated coal-mine spoil, in Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, Knoxville, TN, May 19-25, 1996, p. 3-14.

Cravotta, C.A., III, and Trahan, M.K. (1996) Limestone drains to increase pH and remove dissolved metals from an acidic coal-mine discharge in Pennsylvania, in Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, Knoxville, TN, May 19-25, 1996, p. 836-840.

Cravotta, C.A., III (1996) Municipal sludge use in coal-mine reclamation and potential effects on the formation of acidic mine drainage: University Park, Pa., Pennsylvania State University, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 200 p.

Cravotta, C.A., III (1995) Use of stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopes to identify sources of nitrogen in surface waters in the lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania: U.S. Geological Survey Open- File Report 94-510, 103 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (1994) Secondary iron-sulfate minerals as sources of sulfate and acidity: The geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania, in Alpers, C.N., and Blowes, D.W., eds., Environmental geochemistry of sulfide oxidation: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 550, p. 345-364. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Brady, K.B.C., Gustafson-Minnich, L.C., and DiMatteo, M.R. (1994) Geochemical and geohydrological characteristics of bedrock and mine spoil from two methods of mining at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA: U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication SP 06B, p. 242-249. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Dugas, D.L., Brady, K.B.C., and Kovalchuk, T.E. (1994) Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA: U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication SP 06A, p. 365-374. [Link]

Dugas, D. L.; Cravotta, C. A., III; Saad, D. A., (1993) Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion Cunty, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989. U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor], Open-File Report 93-115, iv, 153 p. :ill. ;28 cm. [Link]

Brady, K.B.C., and Cravotta, C.A., III (1992) Acid base accounting--An improved method of interpreting overburden chemistry to predict the quality of coal-mine drainage, in Proceedings 13th Annual Meeting West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force: Morgantown, W.Va., West Virginia University, 10 p. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (1991) Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania, in Proceedings of the 1991 National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, May 14-17 (1991) Durango, Co.: Princeton, W.V., American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, p. 43-68. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III, Brady, K.B.C., Smith, M.W., and Beam, R.L. (1990) Effectiveness of the addition of alkaline materials at surface coal mines in preventing or abating acid mine drainage--Part 1. Geochemical considerations, in Proceedings of the 1990 Mining and Reclamation Conference and Exhibition: Morgantown, W.V., West Virginia University, v. 1, p. 221-225. [Link]

Brady, K.B.C., Smith, M.W., Beam, R.L., and Cravotta, C.A., III (1990) Effectiveness of the addition of alkaline materials at surface coal mines in preventing or abating acid mine drainage--Part 2. Mine site case studies, in Proceedings of the 1990 Mining and Reclamation Conference and Exhibition: Morgantown, W.V., West Virginia University, v. 1, p. 226-241. [Link]

Cravotta, C.A., III (1986) Spatial and temporal variations of ground-water chemistry in the vicinity of carbonate-hosted zinc-lead occurrences, Blair County, Pennsylvania: University Park, Pa., Pennsylvania State University, unpublished M.S. thesis, 405 p.

 

Abstracts

Cravotta, C.A. III, Sherrod, L., Galeone, D., Lehman, W., Ackman, T., and Kramer, A. (2017) Hydrological and geophysical methods to investigate atreamflow losses and restoration strategies in abandoned mine lands of Schuylkill River watershed, Pennsylvania, USA, 2012-2015: Joint Conference of the West Virginia Mine Drainage Task Force Symposium, American Society for Mining and Reclamation (ASMR), and Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI), April 9-13, 2017, Morgantown, WV

Cravotta, C.A. III, Means, B., and Arthur, B. (2017) A geochemical kinetics module for AMDTreat to estimate the effects of aeration on rates of decarbonation and iron oxidation : Joint Conference of the West Virginia Mine Drainage Task Force Symposium, American Society for Mining and Reclamation (ASMR), and Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI), April 9-13, 2017, Morgantown, WV

Cravotta, C.A. III (2016) Bromide, chloride, and associated brine constituents in waters from coal-bearing rocks in Pennsylvania: 252nd ACS National Meeting in Philadelphia, PA, August 21-25, 2016, ENVR 42. (https://ep70.eventpilotadmin.com/web/page.php?page=IntHtml&project=ACS16...)

Burrows, J.E., Cravotta, C.A. III, and Peters, S.C. (2015) Enhanced Al and Zn removal from coal-mine drainage during rapid oxidation and precipitation of Fe oxides at near-neutra pH [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Baltimore Maryland, November 2015: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, vol. 47, No. 7, p., abs. 153-4. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2015AM/webprogram/Paper268377.html)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2015) Bromide, chloride, and associated brine constituents in waters from coal-bearing rocks in Pennsylvania [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Baltimore Maryland, November 2015: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, vol. 47, No. 7, p., abs. 153-3. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2015AM/webprogram/Paper268327.html)

Spielman, A., Sherrod, L., Cravotta, C.A. III. (2015) Temperature and resistivity investigations to determine zones of streambed leakage and abate abandoned mine drainage in the upper Schuylkill River, Schuylkill County. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), Austin, TX, (23-26 March 2015).

Cravotta, C.A. III, Brady, K.B.C., Greenfield, G.S., Hoffman, S.A., McFadden, A. (2015) Spatial and Temporal Trends in Bromide Concentrations in Discharges from Coal Mining or Processing Facilities in Pennsylvania: Proceedings 36th Annual Meeting West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force: Morgantown, W.Va., West Virginia University, 12 p. (http://wvmdtaskforce.com/proceedings/15/Cravotta-paper.docx)

Hillegas, L.M., Cravotta, C.A. III, Levine, L.A., Sherrod, L.A. (2014) Chemical mass balance improves estimates of total streamflow gains and losses for a stream crossing underground coal mines [abs.], in Northeast Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Lancaster Pennsylvania March 2014: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 46, No. 2, p. 123, abs. 69-3. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014NE/webprogram/Paper236323.html)

Cravotta, C.A. III, Burrows, J.E., Klinges, J.G., Burgos, W.D. (2014) Experiments and modeling of FeII oxidation rate for design of remediation of net alkaline coal-mine effluent, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. [abs.], in Northeast Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Lancaster Pennsylvania March 2014: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 46, No. 2, p. 60, abs. 18-3. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014NE/webprogram/Paper236384.html)

Burrows, J.E., Cravotta, C.A., III, Peters, S.C. (2014) Zn removal from AMD is enhanced by rapid oxidation and precipitation of iron oxides at near neutral pH [abs.], in Northeast Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Lancaster Pennsylvania March 2014: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 46, No. 2, p. 60, abs. 18-2. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014NE/webprogram/Paper236429.html)

Klinges, J.G., Cravotta, C.A. III, Burrows, J.E. (2013) Geomicrobiological and mineralogical characteristics of iron-oxide sludge associated with abandoned mine drainage from the Oak Hill Boreholes in eastern Pennsylvania [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Denver Colorado October 2013: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, vol. 45, no. 7, p. 104, abs. 34-20. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2013AM/webprogram/Paper231751.html)

Burrows, J.E., Peters, S.C., Cravotta, C.A. III (2013) Geochemical variations in above- and below-drainage coal mine discharges (1975 to 2012) [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Denver Colorado October 2013: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, vol. 45, no. 7, p. 571, abs. 245-1. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2013AM/webprogram/Paper230897.html).

Cravotta, C.A. III (2013) Geochemical modeling of Fe(II) oxidation rate in a watershed severely affected by coal-mine drainage, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Denver Colorado October 2013: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, vol. 45, no. 7, p. 287, abs. 113-12. (https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2013AM/webprogram/Paper227066.html)

Cravotta, C.A. III, Arway, J.A., Raymond, P.A. (2013) Water temperature, streamflow, and dissolved gas dynamics relating to ecology, distress, and disease of young smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Susquehanna River (abs), in 2013 Susquehanna Water Science Forum, October 7-9, 2013, Camp Hill, PA: Susquehanna River Basin Commission, p. 22. (http://www.srbc.net/waterscienceforum/presentations.htm#arway_jump)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2013) Apparent rates of Fe(II) oxidation and associated hydrogeochemical interactions in an extensively mined watershed, Pennsylvania, USA, in International Mine Water Association 2013 Symposium, Golden, Colorado, p. 319-324. (http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2013/IMWA2013_CravottaIII_461.pdf)

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Geroni, J.N. (2013) Effects of CO2 on pH and oxidation rates of Fe(II) in mining affected waters, in International Mine Water Association 2013 Symposium, Golden, Colorado, p. 949-954. (http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2013/IMWA2013_CravottaIII_525.pdf)

Kadegis J, Sherrod L, Cravotta, C.A. III, Musa D, Hillegas L, Levine L, Franz T. (2013) A multifaceted approach to assessing the conductance of stream channels in an AMD impacted region. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), Denver, CO, (17-21 March 2013).

Iannacchione, A., Barbot, E., Vidic, R., Blumsak, S., Murphy, T., Yoxtheimer, D., Fontaine, P., Cravotta, C., Kepler, D., Cavazza, E., and Milavec, P. (2012) White papers and presentation slides, in Curtright, A.E., Giglio, K., Feasibility and challenges of using coal mine drainage for Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction--Proceedings and recommendations, December 14, 2011:  Rand Corporation, CF-300-MSC, Appendixes A, B, C, and D, 115 p. (http://www.rand.org/pubs/conf_proceedings/CF300.html)

Cravotta, C.A. III, Roland, M.A., Brady, K.B.C., Greenfield, G.S., Allen, W.S., Jr. (2012) Priority pollutants in untreated and treated discharges from coal mines in Pennsylvania, in Proceedings 33rd Annual Meeting West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force: Morgantown, W.Va., West Virginia University, 34 p. (http://wvmdtaskforce.com/proceedings/12/11-Cravotta%20_WVMDTF_2012_notes.pdf)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2011) Water budgets and volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield [abs.]:  Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, 2011 Pennsylvania AMR Conference, August 4-6, 2011, Hazleton, PA (http://treatminewater.epcamr.org/presenters#Cravotta). .

Cravotta, C.A. III (2011) Using AMDTreat and PHREEQC titration module for prediction of AMD effluents [abs.]:  Proceedings 32nd Annual Meeting West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force: Morgantown, W.Va., West Virginia University (http://wvmdtaskforce.com/proceedings/11/Cravotta.ppt).

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Brady, K.B.C. (2011) Hydrochemistry of legacy coal-mine drainage in Pennsylvania—Environmental implications [abs.]:  Harrisburg Area Geological Society, March 10, 2011, Harrisburg, PA.

Goode, D.J., Cravotta, C.A. III, Hornberger, R.J., and Hewitt, M.A. (2010) Simulation of water-resources development of flooded coal mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania: American Water Resources Association Annual Water Resources Conference, November 1-4, 2010, Philadelphia, PA (http://pa.water.usgs.gov/projects/groundwater/westernmiddle/AWRA2010_abs...).

Cravotta, C.A. III (2010) Hydrochemistry of legacy coal-mine drainage in Pennsylvania [abs.]:  US-China Geomicrobiology Workshop, May 18-23, 2010, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.  (http://www.cas.muohio.edu/geomicrobiologyworkshop/Final_program_and_abst...)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2010) Hydrochemistry of legacy coal mines in Pennsylvania [abs.], in Northeastern Section and Southeastern Section Joint Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Baltimore, Maryland, March 2010: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 42, no. 1, p. 61. (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010NE/finalprogram/abstract_169869.htm)

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Koury, D.J. (2010) Streamwater-quality improvement and the return of fish coinciding with the treatment and abatement of abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, Southern Anthracite Coalfield, Pennsylvania [abs.], in The 32nd Annual Conference of the National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs, Scranton, PA, September 19-22, 2010, abstract 10, p. 11. (http://www.naamlp2010.com/CallB.htm#Abstracts of Technical Presentations and Workshops)

Cravotta, C.A. III, Parkhurst, D.L., Means, B., McKenzie, R., Morris, H., and Arthur, W. (2010) A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume [abs.], in 2010 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Pittsburgh, PA. (http://dept.ca.uky.edu/asmr/W/Abstracts/2010%20Abstracts/0013-Cravotta-P...).

Cravotta, C.A. III, Parkhurst, D.L., Means, B., McKenzie, R., Morris, H., and Arthur, W. (2010) Using the computer program AMDTreat with a PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume [abs.], in International Mine Water Association 2010 Symposium, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, September 5-9, 2010. (http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2010/IMWA2010_CravottaIII_403.pdf)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2009) Methane in West Virginia groundwater--Preliminary evaluation of aqueous geochemistry [abs.], in Stray Gas Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, November 4-6, 2009, Program with Abstracts, p. 7. (http://pa.water.usgs.gov/stray_gas/StrayGasWorkshop2009_Program_andAbstr...)

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Nantz, J.M. (2008) Quantity and quality of stream water draining mined areas of the upper Schuylkill River basin, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 2005-2007 [abs.], in. National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Richmond VA, New Opportunities to Apply Our Science June 14-19, 2008: American Society of Mining and Reclamation, p. 223-252. (http://dept.ca.uky.edu/asmr/W/Abstracts/2008%20abstracts.pdf)

 Cravotta, C.A. III (2007) TMDLs and treatment of abandoned mine drainage [abs.], in The 2nd Annual Susquehanna River Symposium, Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Drainage Remediation: Seeking Common Ground Along the Susquehanna: Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, September 29, 2007. (http://www.students.bucknell.edu/projects/geolgis/BUAMDSympFiles/Cravott...)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2006) Laboratory and field evaluation of limestone dissolution in passive systems [abs.], in in Proceedings 13th Annual Meeting West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force: Morgantown, W.Va., West Virginia University, 2 p. (http://wvmdtaskforce.com/proceedings/06/Cravotta.pdf)

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Seal, R.R., II (2006) Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, 1999 [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 2006: : Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, abs. 176-9. (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2006AM/finalprogram/abstract_110389.htm)

Hammarstrom, J.M., Cravotta, C.A. III, Brady, K., Hornberger, R.J., Jackson, J., Dulong, F., and Galeone, D. (2006) Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of overburden materials for the ADTI-WP2 procedure for coal mine drainage prediction [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 2006: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, abstract 134-4. (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2006AM/finalprogram/abstract_111241.htm)

Seal, R.R., II, and Cravotta, C.A. III (2006) Stable isotope characteristics of abandoned coal mine discharges, Pennsylvania [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 2006: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, abstract 134-5. (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2006AM/finalprogram/abstract_111402.htm)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2005) Field and laboratory evaluation of limestone dissolution in passive systems for neutralization of acidic mine drainage [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, October 2005: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, abs. 42-8. (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2005AM/finalprogram/abstract_96865.htm)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2005) Swatara Creek National Monitoring Project--Lessons from monitoring of coal- mine-drainage treatment systems and downstream reaches [abs.]: 13th National Nonpoint Source Monitoring Workshop From Projects to Programs: Enhancing States' NPS Management Programs through Lessons Learned from NPS Monitoring Projects September 18-22, 2005 Raleigh, North Carolina. (http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/wqg/nmp_conf/presentations/cr...)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2005) Laboratory and field evaluation of limestone dissolution in passive systems for neutralization of acidic mine drainage [abs.]: Mine Water Treatment Technology Conference, Pittsburgh, PA August 15-18, 2005. (http://2005.treatminewater.com/Presentations/Cravotta1.htm)

Cravotta, C.A. III (2005) Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in Anthracite and Bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania [abs.]: Mine Water Treatment Technology Conference, Pittsburgh, PA August 15-18, 2005. (http://2005.treatminewater.com/Presentations/Cravotta2.htm)

Hammarstrom, J.M., Brady, K.B.C., and Cravotta, C.A. III (2005) Mineralogical controls on acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre Co., PA [abs.]: Geological Society of America, Northeastern Section (40th Annual) Meeting (March 14-16, 2005), Saratoga Springs, New York, GSA Abstracts with Programs vol. 37, no. 1, abstract 82421 (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2005NE/finalprogram/abstract_82421.htm).

Cravotta, C.A. III (2004) Characteristics of abandoned mine drainage in Pennsylvania [abs.]: Geological Society of America, Northeastern Section (39th Annual) and Southeastern Section (53rd Annual) Joint Meeting (March 25-27, 2004), GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 36, No. 2, March 2004 (http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2004NE/finalprogram/abstract_70849.htm).

Cravotta, C.A. III (2004) Optimization of limestone drains for long-term treatment of acidic mine drainage, Swatara Creek Basin, Schuylkill County, PA [abs.] in Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conference, Indiana, Pennsylvania, June 9-12, 2004: Western Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation. (http://amrclearinghouse.org/SpecialEvents/2004AMRConf/Cravotta.htm)

Cravotta, C.A. III, Bilger, M.D., Brightbill, R.A., and Bogar, D. (2002) Restoration and monitoring of aquatic quality in a coal-mined watershed (abs), in Annual Meeting of the American Water Resources Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3-7, 2002: Falls Church, Va., American Water Resources Association, P-52.

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Bilger, M.D. (2001) Water-quality trends for a stream draining the southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania [abs.], in U.S. Geological Survey Appalachian Region Integrated Science Workshop Proceedings, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 22-26, 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-406, p. 21. (http://www.appalachianregionscience.usgs.gov/appal/pdf/OFR01406part1.pdf).

Cravotta, C.A. III, Breen, K.J., and Seal, R. (2001) Arsenic is ubiquitous but not elevated in abandoned coal-mine discharges in Pennsylvania [abs.], in U.S. Geological Survey Appalachian Region Integrated Science Workshop Proceedings, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 22-26, 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-406, p. 105. (http://www.appalachianregionscience.usgs.gov/appal/pdf/OFR01406part1.pdf).

Cravotta, C.A. III, Breen, K.J., and Seal, R. (2001) Arsenic is ubiquitous but not elevated in abandoned coal-mine discharges in Pennsylvania [abs.], in U.S. Geological Survey Arsenic Workshop, February 2001: U.S. Geological Survey (http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/Arsenic/FinalAbsPDF/cravatta.pdf).

Chaplin, J.J., and Cravotta, C.A. III (2000) Abatement of abandoned mine drainage requires characterization of interaction between surface water and underground mine water [abs.], in 2000 Spring Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.: EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 81, abs. H6670.

Robbins, E.I., Nord, G.L., Jr., Cravotta, C.A. III, Anderson, J.E., and Slonecker, E.T. (2000) Assessing pH variations in drainage water from coal mines using field and airborne spectral reflectance methods [abs.]: 31st International Geological Congress.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1999) Oxic limestone drains to increase pH and remove dissolved metals from acidic coal mine drainage, Pennsylvania [abs.], in National Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, California, December 1999: EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 80, no. 46, abs. H22F03.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1999) Trends and relations between concentrations of suspended sediment and metals for coal-mined watershed, Pennsylvania [abs.], in National Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Denver, Colorado, October 1999: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 13, no. 7, abs. 25077.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1999) Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic discharges [abs.], in National Meeting of the National Association Abandoned Mine Land Programs, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Pennsylvania, August 22-25, 1999: National Association of Abandoned Mine Land Programs.

Brady, K.B.C., Rose, A.W., Cravotta, C.A. III, and Hellier, W.W. (1997) Bimodal distribution of pH in coal- mine drainage [abs.]: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 1, p. 32.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1997) Hydrogeochemical considerations for ground-water monitoring and remediation at surface coal mines [abs.]: Proceedings 4th National Nonpoint-Source Watersheds Projects Workshop, p. 87-88.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1996) Nitrogen transformations and transport in acidic coal-mine spoil (abs), in Puckett, L.J., and Triska, F.J., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Nitrogen-Cycling Workshop, Denver, Co., October 29-November 2, 1995: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-477, p. 32.

Robbins, E.I., Nord, G.L., Cravotta, C.A. III, Chou, I.-M., Nordstrom, D.K., and Muzik, T. (1996) Microbial and mineralogical analysis of flocculates that occlude porosity in failed anoxic limestone drains fed by acid mine waters [abs.], in Varekamp, J.C., and Rowe, G.L., conveners, Crater lakes, terrestrial degassing and hyper-acid fluids in the environment: AGU Chapman Conference, p. 26.

Cravotta, C.A. III, and Bird, P.H. (1995) Effects of water saturation and microbial activity on acid production and metals transport from pyritic shale [abs.]: EOS, v. 76, no. 17, p. S149.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1992) Secondary iron sulfate minerals as sources of stored acidity and ferric ions in acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine in Pennsylvania [abs.], in Book of Abstracts 204th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D.C., August 23-28, 1992: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, Part 1, GEOC 78.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1992) Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic water at reclaimed coal mines in western Pennsylvania [abs.]: Geological Society of America, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 24, no. 3, p. 14.

Saad, D.A., and Cravotta, C.A. III (1991) Modeling of ground-water flow along a cross section through a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania [abs.], in Proceedings of the 1991 National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, May 14-17, 1991, Durango, Co.: Princeton, W.V., American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, p. 545. (http://www.techtransfer.osmre.gov/NTTMainSite/Library/proceed/asmr91/ses...)

Cravotta, C.A. III (1989) Geochemical evolution of ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 21, no. 2, p. 10.

Cravotta, C.A. III (1989) Geochemical evolution of ground water at a surface coal mine reclaimed with urban sewage sludge in western Pennsylvania [abs.], in Pederson, G.L., and Smith, M.M., compilers, U.S. Geological Survey Second National Symposium on Water Quality--Abstracts of the Technical Sessions, Orlando, Fla., November 12-17, 1989: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-409, p. 13.