Energy Resources Program

Publications

Filter Total Items: 2,549
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Year Published: 2021

Multilayer perceptrons (MLPs)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are adaptable systems that can solve problems that are difficult to describe with a mathematical relationship. They seek relationships between different types of datasets with their abilities to learn either with supervision or without. ANNs recognize patterns between input and output space and generalize...

Karacan, C. Özgen

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Year Published: 2021

Method for compiling temporally and spatially aggregated data on hydraulic fracturing—Treatments and wells

This report provides a step-by-step method for compiling hydraulic fracturing data in the United States from the IHS Markit, 2019, U.S. Well History and Production Relational Database. Data on hydraulically fractured wells include their location (geologic province, State, county), well type (oil or gas), orientation (directional, horizontal, or...

Varela, Brian A.; Gallegos, Tanya J.
Varela, B.A., and Gallegos, T.J., 2021, Method for compiling temporally and spatially aggregated data on hydraulic fracturing—Treatments and wells: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1090, 30 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211090.

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Year Published: 2021

Realizations

In statistics, a realization is an observed value of a random variable (Gubner 2006). In mathematical geology, the most important realizations are those in the form of maps of spatially correlated regionalized variables.Spatial description of random variables within complex domains and making certain decisions about those require complete...

Karacan, C. Özgen

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Year Published: 2021

Hydrous pyrolysis of New Albany Shale: A study examining maturation changes and porosity development

The characterization of nanoscale organic structures has improved our understanding of porosity development within source-rock reservoirs, but research linking organic porosity evolution to thermal maturity has generated conflicting results. To better understand this connection, an immature (0.25% solid bitumen reflectance; BRo...

Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Hatcherian, Javin J.

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Year Published: 2021

Machine learning can assign geologic basin to produced water samples using major ion geochemistry

Understanding the geochemistry of waters produced during petroleum extraction is essential to informing the best treatment and reuse options, which can potentially be optimized for a given geologic basin. Here, we used the US Geological Survey’s National Produced Waters Geochemical Database (PWGD) to determine if major ion chemistry could be used...

Shelton, Jenna L.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Saxe, Samuel; Attanasi, Emil D.; Milkov, Alexei; Engle, Mark A; Freeman, Philip A.; Shaffer, Christopher; Blondes, Madalyn S.

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Year Published: 2021

Effect of an algal amendment on the microbial conversion of coal to methane at different sulfate concentrations from the Powder River Basin, USA

Biogenic methane is estimated to account for one-fifth of the natural gas worldwide and there is great interest in controlling methane from different sources. Biogenic coalbed methane (CBM) production relies on syntrophic associations between fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea to anaerobically degrade recalcitrant coal and produce...

Smith, Heidi J.; Schweitzer, Hannah S.; Barnhart, Elliott; Orem, William H.; Gerlach, Robin; Fields, Matthew W.

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Year Published: 2021

Compositional evolution of organic matter in Boquillas Shale across a thermal gradient at the single particle level

The molecular composition of petroliferous organic matter and its compositional evolution throughout thermal maturation provides insight for understanding petroleum generation. This information is critical for understanding hydrocarbon resources in unconventional reservoirs, as source rock organic matter is highly dispersed, in contact...

Birdwell, Justin E.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Hatcherian, Javin J.

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Year Published: 2021

National assessment of helium resources within known natural gas reservoirs

Using available data, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 306 billion cubic feet of recoverable helium is presently within the known geologic natural gas reservoirs of the United States.

Brennan, Sean T.; Rivera, Jennifer L.; Varela, Brian A.; Park, Andy J.
Brennan, S.T., Rivera, J.L., Varela, B.A., and Park, A.J., 2021, National assessment of helium resources within known natural gas reservoirs: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2021–5085, 5 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20215085.

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Year Published: 2021

Frequency distribution

Given a numerical dataset, a frequency distribution is a summary displaying fluctuations of an attribute within the range of values. In contrast to an analytical probability distribution, a frequency distribution always deals with empirically observed values (Everitt and Skondall 2010). In general, the larger the number of values, the more...

Olea, Ricardo

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Year Published: 2021

Revisiting the declustering of spatial data with preferential sampling

Preferential sampling is a form of data collection that may significantly distort the histogram and the semivariogram of spatially correlated data. Typical situations are a higher sampling density at high-valued areas favorable for mining, and highly contaminated areas in need of environmental remediation. Multiple statistical procedures are...

Olea, Ricardo

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Year Published: 2021

Geochemical and mineralogical properties of Boquillas Shale geochemical reference material ShBOQ-1

The ShBOQ-1 geochemical reference material is relevant to studies of the organic geochemistry and mineralogy of petroleum source rocks containing high concentrations of carbonate minerals and organic sulfur-rich, oil-prone marine organic matter. ShBOQ-1 is geochemically and mineralogically similar to the lower part of the Upper Cretaceous Eagle...

Birdwell, Justin E.; Wilson, Stephen A.
Birdwell, J.E., and Wilson, S.A., 2021, Geochemical and mineralogical properties of Boquillas Shale geochemical reference material ShBOQ-1:U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2021–3048, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20213048.

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Year Published: 2021

Geologic and geophysical maps of the Santa Maria and part of the Point Conception 30'×60' quadrangles, California

This report presents digital geologic, gravity, and aeromagnetic maps for the onshore parts of the Santa Maria and Point Conception 30'x60' quadrangles at a compilation scale of 1:100,000. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units, surficial deposits, paleontological data, geophysical data and structural features in the Santa Maria basin...

Sweetkind, Donald S.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McDougall-Reid, Kristin; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Demas, Shiera C.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.
Sweetkind, D.S., Langenheim, V.E., McDougall-Reid, K., Sorlien, C.C., Demas, S.C., Tennyson, M.E., and Johnson, S.Y., 2021, Geologic and geophysical maps of the Santa Maria and part of the Point Conception 30'×60' quadrangles, California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3472, 1 sheet, scale 1:100,000, 58-p. pamphlet, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3472. [Supersedes USGS Open-File Reports 95–25 and 92–189.]