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Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Hawaiian volcanoes, 2018-2022

Measurement of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates is a critical aspect of monitoring and studying active volcanoes. Changes in emission rate are often associated with changes in volcanic activity and in some cases may herald future changes in activity. At the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), emission rates of SO2 from Hawaiian volcanoes have been measured by ultraviolet spectrometer since the

Stochastic lava flow forecasting code used during the 2014-2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis, Kīlauea Volcano, Island of Hawai‘i

The 1983-2018 Puʻuʻōʻō eruption, on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano, consisted of many different episodes and several phases of lava flows threatening residential areas (Heliker and Mattox 2003; Orr and others 2015).  One of these crises occurred in 2014-2015, when lava erupting from Puʻuʻōʻō advanced north of the rift zone, towards the town of Pāhoa (Poland and others 2016; Brantley and o

Vesicularity, grain size, and grain shape of basaltic pyroclasts from Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, Island of Hawaiʻi

This dataset includes sample information, vesicularity by pycnometer, grain size and shape data by CAMSIZER, and measurements of crushed and thin section mounted grains by microscope. All studied samples were from scoria and air-fall-tephra deposits (most formed in Hawaiian lava fountains) collected around the summits of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea volcanoes, Island of Hawaiʻi. These data were used to d

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (ver. 2.0, April 2021)

Summary: Siliceous sinter samples were collected from multiple geysers in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in 2018. These silica sinter samples were collected and analyzed as a part of a multi-year research investigation into the age and geochemistry of hydrothermal features in the Upper Geyser Basin. Samples were collected along the stratigraphy of each feature. From these samp

Silicified wood from around Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

Old Faithful Geyser in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park is one of the best studied geysers in the world. Under research permit YELL-SCI-8030, samples from 13 silicified tree remnants were collected adjacent to the Old Faithful Geyser cone in April and November 2019. The silicified wood samples were dated using the radiocarbon (14C) method and were analyzed by scanning electron m

Water and gas chemistry data from wells and hot springs in the Western USA, 1930 – 2006

Historical water and gas chemistry data from geothermal areas are important for detecting long-term patterns, informing geothermal energy exploration, development, and use, and for contextualizing more recent data. The U.S. Geological survey has published water and gas chemistry data from geothermal areas in the western United States, which is primarily available as scanned PDF files. This makes

Thermal camera images of lava lake and crater filling activity at Puʻuʻōʻō, East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano, Island of Hawaiʻi, 2011-2019

The 35-year-long Puʻuʻōʻō eruption, on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano, was the longest volcanic eruption on the Island of Hawaiʻi in the past 100 years (Wright and Klein 2014; Mulliken and others 2023). The eruption, whose vent area was focused at and around Puʻuʻōʻō cone, produced episodic fountaining in its initial few years followed by decades of effusive activity that created an expans

Keanakākoʻi Tephra unit D, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii: sample details, grain size, and grain shape data for 100 tephra samples

A total of 100 samples were collected from two proximal sections of Keanakākoʻi, Tephra unit D deposits. Samples were analyzed on Microtrac CAMSIZER® P4 and X2 instruments for grain size and shape data in the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) tephra lab. Data release includes sample descriptions, half phi grain size distributions, and statistical output from DECOLOG deconvolution modeling of

Timelapse camera and webcam images of the fissure 8 lava flow during the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Island of Hawaiʻi

The 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Island of Hawaiʻi, was one of the most destructive effusive eruptions worldwide in the past century, destroying over 700 structures (Neal and others, 2019; Meredith and others, 2022).  Between May and September 2018, a total of 24 fissures opened, producing a lava flow field with an area of 36 km2.  By the end of May, the eruption had foc

Campaign GPS measurements on the Island of Hawaiʻi collected by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 2021

This release includes data collected during campaign GPS surveys at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes on the Island of Hawaiʻi in 2021. It includes data from a total of 63 sites occupied from January 1 to December 31, 2021. For each site, we include its measured raw data in daily files, Receiver INdependent EXchange (RINEX) files for each day, field log sheet(s), and associated metadata information.

Airborne lidar survey of St Vincent, Eastern Caribbean, following the 2020-21 eruption of La Soufrière Volcano

La Soufrière Volcano is a 1,220 m high stratovolcano that occupies the northern half of the island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, Eastern Caribbean. It has a long history of explosive and sometimes devastating eruptions. Beginning in December 2020 and ending in April 2021, La Soufrière Volcano produced a Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) 4 eruption that greatly impacted the landscape, communities,

Geochemical data for the Pacheco stage tephra-fall deposits from Misti volcano, Arequipa, Peru

These data are derived from pumice and scoria from Pacheco stage (as defined by Harpel et al., 2021) tephra-fall deposits (TFD) emplaced between