Mission Areas

Ecosystems

Mission Areas L2 Landing Page Tabs

Filter Total Items: 30,689
Year Published: 2016

Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37...

Costello, Cecily M.; Cain, Steven L.; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.
Costello CM, Cain SL, Pils S, Frattaroli L, Haroldson MA, van Manen FT (2016) Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0153702. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153702

Year Published: 2016

Component greenhouse gas fluxes and radiative balance from two deltaic marshes in Louisiana: Pairing chamber techniques and eddy covariance

Coastal marshes take up atmospheric CO2 while emitting CO2, CH4, and N2O. This ability to sequester carbon (C) is much greater for wetlands on a per-area basis than from most ecosystems, facilitating scientific, political, and economic interest in their value as greenhouse gas sinks. However, the greenhouse gas balance of Gulf of Mexico...

Krauss, Ken W.; Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Cormier, Nicole; Moss, Rebecca; Johnson, Darren; Neubauer, Scott C; Raynie, Richard C
Krauss, K.W., Holm, G.O., Jr., Perez, B.C., McWhorter, D.E., Cormier, N., Moss, R.F., Johnson, D.J., Neubauer, S.C., and Raynie, R.C., 2016, Component greenhouse gas fluxes and radiative balance from two deltaic marshes in Louisiana: pairing chamber techniques and eddy covariance: Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Accepted Online Early, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JG003224.

Year Published: 2016

Accounting for adaptive capacity and uncertainty in assessments of species’ climate-change vulnerability

Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are valuable tools for assessing species’ vulnerability to climatic changes, yet failure to include measures of adaptive capacity and to account for sources of uncertainty may limit their effectiveness. Here, we provide a more comprehensive CCVA approach that incorporates all three elements...

Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Kovach, Ryan; Luikart, Gordon; Whited, Diane; Muhlfeld, Clint C.
Alisa A. Wade, Brian K. Hand, Ryan P. Kovach, Gordon Luikart, Diane C. Whited, and Clint C. Muhlfeld. 2016.Accounting for adaptive capacity and uncertainty in assessments of species’ climate-change vulnerability. Conservation Biology 10.1111/cobi.12764

Year Published: 2016

Biocrusts in the context of global change

A wide range of studies show global environmental change will profoundly affect the structure, function, and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. The research synthesized here underscores that biocrust communities are also likely to respond significantly to global change drivers, with a large potential for modification to their abundance,...

Reed, Sasha C.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Ochoa-Hueso, Raul; Kuske, Cheryl; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony N.; Darby, Brian; Sinsabaugh, Bob; Oliver, Mel; Sancho, Leo; Belnap, Jayne

Year Published: 2016

Biological soil crusts: An organizing principle in dryland ecosystems (aka: the role of biocrusts in arid land hydrology)

Biocrusts exert a strong influence on hydrological processes in drylands by modifying numerous soil properties that affect water retention and movement in soils. Yet, their role in these processes is not clearly understood due to the large number of factors that act simultaneously and can mask the biocrust effect. The influence of biocrusts on...

Chamizo, Sonia; Belnap, Jayne; Elridge, David J; Issa, Oumarou M
Chamizo, S., Belnap, J., Eldridge, D.J., Canton, Y., and Issa, O.M., 2016, Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 321-346, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_17.

Year Published: 2016

Carbon budgets of biological soil crusts at micro-, meso-, and global scales

The importance of biocrusts in the ecology of arid lands across all continents is widely recognized. In spite of this broad distribution, contributions of biocrusts to the global biogeochemical cycles have only recently been considered. While these studies opened a new view on the global role of biocrusts, they also clearly revealed the lack of...

Sancho, Leopoldo G; Belnap, Jayne; Colesie, Claudia; Raggio, Jose; Weber, Bettina
Sancho, L.G., Belnap, J., Colesie, C., Raggio, J., and Weber, B., 2016, Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 287-304, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_15.

Year Published: 2016

Controls on distribution patterns of biological soil crusts at micro- to global scales

Biocrusts are heterogeneously distributed in space. The drivers of their distribution patterns vary depending on the spatial scale of observation. Globally, there are about 1337 cyanobacteria, algae, bryophyte, and lichen species reported as components of biocrusts. At the broadest biogeographical scales, the degree and age of isolation of land...

Belnap, Jayne; Lange, Otto L.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Buedel, Burkhard; Sannier, Christophe; Pietrasiak, Nicole; Eldridge, David; Aguilar, Victor Rivera
Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J., Budel, B., Sannier, C., Pietrasiak, N., Eldridge, D.J., and Rivera-Aguilar, V., 2016, Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 173-198, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_10.

Year Published: 2016

How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important...

Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne
Lange, O.L., and Belnap, J., 2016, Biological soil crusts as an organizing principle in drylands, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 15-36, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_2.

Year Published: 2016

Natural recovery of biological soil crusts after disturbance

Natural recovery of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) is influenced by a number of different parameters, such as climate, soil conditions, the severity of disturbance, and the timing of disturbance relative to the climatic conditions. In recent studies, it has been shown that recovery is often not linear, but a highly dynamic process directly...

Weber, Bettina; Bowker, Matthew A.; Zhang, Yuanming; Belnap, Jayne
Weber, B., Bowker, M., Zhang, Y., and Belnap, J. 2016, Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 479-498, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_23.

Year Published: 2016

Patterns and controls on nitrogen cycling of biological soil crusts

Biocrusts play a significant role in the nitrogen [N ] cycle within arid and semi-arid ecosystems, as they contribute major N inputs via biological fixation and dust capture, harbor internal N transformation processes, and direct N losses via N dissolved, gaseous and erosional loss processes (Fig. 1). Because soil N availability in arid and semi-...

Barger, Nichole N.; Zaady, Eli; Weber, Bettina; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Belnap, Jayne
Barger, N.N., Weber, B., Garcia-Pichel, F., Zaady, E., and Belnap, J., 2016, Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 257-285, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_14.

Year Published: 2016

Synthesis on biological soil crust research

In this closing chapter, we summarize the advances in biocrust research made during the last 1.5 decades. In the first part of the chapter, we discuss how in some research fields, such as the microbial diversity of fungi, bacteria, and microfauna; the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants; and in the rehabilitation of biocrusts;...

Weber, Bettina; Belnap, Jayne; Buedel, Burkhard
Weber, B., Belnap, J., and Budel, B., 2016, Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers, in Weber, B., Budel, B, and Belnap, J., eds., Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands: Switzerland, Springer International Publishing, p. 527-534, http://dx.doi.10.1007/978-3-319-30214-0_25.

Year Published: 2016

Spatially explicit modeling of annual and seasonal habitat for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Nevada and Northeastern California—An updated decision-support tool for management

Successful adaptive management hinges largely upon integrating new and improved sources of information as they become available. As a timely example of this tenet, we updated a management decision support tool that was previously developed for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereinafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) populations in...

Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Mauch, Kimberly; Niell, Lara; Gardner, Scott; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.
Coates, P.S., Casazza, M.L., Brussee B.E., Ricca, M.A., Gustafson, K.B., Sanchez-Chopitea, E., Mauch, K., Niell, L., Gardner, S., Espinosa, S., and Delehanty, D.J., 2016, Spatially explicit modeling of annual and seasonal habitat for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Nevada and Northeastern California—An updated decision-support tool for management: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1080, 160 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161080.