Mission Areas

Natural Hazards

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Costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous; each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. We develop and apply hazards science to help protect U.S. safety, security, and economic well being. These scientific observations, analyses, and research are crucial for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards.

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Filter Total Items: 282
Date published: August 31, 2018
Status: Active

Coastal Model Applications and Field Measurements- Ocean Model Contributions

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) led a project funded by the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) with support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), to develop a community sediment-transport modeling system (CSTMS).

Date published: August 29, 2018
Status: Active

Beach-dependent Shorebirds

Policy-makers, individuals from government agencies, and natural resource managers are under increasing pressure to manage changing coastal areas to meet social, economic, and natural resource demands, particularly under a regime of sea-level rise. Scientific knowledge of coastal processes and habitat-use can support decision-makers as they balance these often-conflicting human and ecological...

Date published: August 28, 2018
Status: Active

Coastal Model Applications and Field Measurements

Numerical models are used by scientists, engineers, coastal managers, and the public to understand and predict processes in the coastal ocean. This project supports the development and application of open-source coastal models and has several objectives: 1) improve the code of numerical sediment-transport models by implementing new or improved algorithms; 2) obtain measurements of coastal...

Date published: August 27, 2018
Status: Completed

IMMeRSS-- Geophysical Imaging for Methane Seep Studies

Geophysical imaging relies on specialized tools to detect anomalies in the water column or to map features on or beneath the seafloor.  Equipment may be towed, mounted on the side of a ship, or attached to the ship’s hull.  Many geophysical techniques rely on transmitting an acoustic signal of a particular frequency and analyzing the information in the returning signal to infer the properties...

Date published: August 27, 2018
Status: Completed

IMMeRSS-- Dating Past Methane Seepage

Cold seeps are locations where chemicals, including methane, hydrocarbons, sulfide and sometimes carbon dioxide, leak from sediments below the seafloor into the water above.  Much of the current knowledge on cold seeps comes from direct observations, such as the mapping of acoustic flares and the detection of...

Date published: August 27, 2018
Status: Completed

IMMeRSS- Seafloor Methane Seep Environments

Cold seeps, which are locations where chemicals -- including methane and other hydrocarbons, brine, hydrogen sulfide, and sometimes carbon dioxide--leak from the seafloor, occur worldwide on both passive and tectonically-active continental margins.  Cold seeps are distinguished from ...

Date published: August 27, 2018
Status: Completed

IMMeRSS-- Interagency Mission for Methane Research on Seafloor Seeps

 

From May 3 to May 11, 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the British Geological Survey and with support from these two agencies, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, and the U.S. Department of Energy, will lead an...

Contacts: Carolyn Ruppel, Ph.D, Amanda Demopoulos, Ph.D., Nancy Prouty, Diana Sahay, Daniel Concon
Date published: August 23, 2018
Status: Active

Gas Hydrates- Laboratory and Field Support

The Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC)

A device for measuring the physical properties of naturally-occurring, hydrate-bearing sediment at nearly in situ pressure conditions.

Date published: August 23, 2018
Status: Active

Gas Hydrates- Submarine Slope Destabilization

USGS scientists have a long tradition of studying submarine slope failures and were among the first to note a spatial link between slope failures and gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. USGS Gas Hydrates scientists support the USGS Hazards Mission area through field-based surveys that refine understanding of this association and through geotechnical studies that evaluate the response of...

Date published: August 23, 2018
Status: Active

Gas Hydrates- Atlantic Margin Methane Seeps

Analysis of 94,000 square kilometers of multibeam water column backscatter data collected by the NOAA Okeanos Explorer mostly seaward of the shelf-break on the northern US Atlantic margin reveals more than 570 gas plumes that correspond to seafloor methane seeps. This discovery is documented in an August 2014 ...

Date published: August 22, 2018
Status: Completed

Caribbean Tsunami and Earthquake Hazards Studies- Models

The Puerto Rico trench exhibits great water depth, extremely low gravity anomaly, and a tilted carbonate platform between (reconstructed) elevations of +1300 m and -4000 m. we suggest that these features are manifestations of large vertical movements of a segment of the Puerto Rico Trench, its forearc, and the island of Puerto Rico that took place 3.3 m.y. ago over a time period as short as 14...

Date published: August 22, 2018
Status: Completed

Caribbean Tsunami and Earthquake Hazards Studies-Tsunami Potential

Newly-acquired multibeam bathymetry of the entire Puerto Rico trench reveals numerous retrograde slope failures at various scales at the edge of the carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The slumped material comprises carbonate blocks, which are cohesive and the edge of the carbonate platform is steeper than most continental slopes, resulting in a higher potential...

Filter Total Items: 123
Date published: March 28, 2018

Mean tidal range in salt marsh units of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

This dataset displays the spatial variation mean tidal range (i.e. Mean Range of Tides, MN) in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. MN was based on the calculated difference in height between mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) using the VDatum (v3.5) software (...

Date published: March 27, 2018

Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors

This dataset displays the exposure potential to environmental health stressors in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. Exposure potential is calculated with the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) ranking system (Reilly and others, 2015)

Date published: March 27, 2018

Continuous terrain model for water circulation studies, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

Water quality in the Barnegat Bay estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. A continuous elevation surface (terrain model) integrating all available elevation data in the area was produced for water circulation modeling...

Date published: March 27, 2018

Point cloud from low-altitude aerial imagery from unmanned aerial system (UAS) flights over Coast Guard Beach, Nauset Spit, Nauset Inlet, and Nauset Marsh, Cape Cod National Seashore, Eastham, Massachusetts on 1 March 2016 (LAZ file)

This point cloud was derived from low-altitude aerial images collected from an unmanned aerial system (UAS) flown in the Cape Cod National Seashore on 1 March, 2016. The objective of the project was to evaluate the quality and cost of mapping from UAS images. The point cloud contains 434,096,824 unclassifed and unedited geolocated points.

Date published: March 27, 2018

Biogeomorphic classification and images of shorebird nesting sites on the U.S. Atlantic coast

Atlantic coast piping plover (Charadrius melodus) nest sites are typically found on low-lying beach and dune systems, which respond rapidly to coastal processes like sediment overwash, inlet formation, and island migration that are sensitive to climate-related changes in storminess and the rate of sea-level rise. Data were obtained to understand piping plover habitat distribution.

Date published: March 26, 2018

Conceptual salt marsh units for wetland synthesis: Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

Recent research shows that sediment budgets of microtidal marsh complexes on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States consistently scale with areal unvegetated/vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) despite differences in sea-level rise, tidal range, elevation, vegetation, and stressors. This highlights UVVR as a broadly applicable indicator of microtidal marsh stability.

Date published: March 26, 2018

Wetland data layers derived from Barnegat Bay Little Egg Harbor hydrodynamic model

As part of this data synthesis effort, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling of Barnegat Bay Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) has been used to create the following wetland data layers in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), New Jersey: 1) Hydrodynamic residence time , 2) salinity change and 3) salinity exposure change in wetlands, and 4) sediment supply to wetlands

Date published: March 26, 2018

Bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the Hudson Shelf Valley

 The purpose of the multibeam echosounder surveys was to map the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the valley, providing a framework for geologic, oceanographic, and geochemical studies. The data from the three surveys are combined to produce grids of bathymetry and backscatter intensity at 12-m resolution that cover the entire valley and the head of the Hudson Canyon...

Date published: March 26, 2018

Monitoring Mount St. Helens

Monitoring of earthquake and volcanic acitivity at Mount St. Helens.

Date published: March 20, 2018

High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Mississippi River Delta front offshore of southeastern Louisiana, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2017-003-FA

High resolution bathymetric, sea-floor backscatter, and seismic-reflection data were collected offshore of southeastern Louisiana aboard the research vessel Point Sur on May 19-26, 2017, in an effort to characterize mudflow hazards on the Mississippi River Delta front. The primary objective of this cruise was to assess the suitability of sea-floor mapping and shallow subsurface imaging tools...

Date published: February 20, 2018

Data compilation of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements from global warming experiments from 1994-2014

This dataset is the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and nearly two decades of warming experiments. Data for this study were obtained from a combination of unpublished data and published literature values.

Date published: February 20, 2018

Continuous and optimized 3-arcsecond elevation model for United States east and west coasts

This data release contains the compilation of multiple elevation products into a continuous digital elevation model at a resolution of 3-arcseconds (approximately 90 meters) from the terrestrial landscape to the seafloor for the contiguous U.S. and portions of Mexico and Canada, focused on the coastal interface.

Filter Total Items: 4,535
Year Published: 2018

Tilt Trivia: A free multiplayer app to learn geoscience concepts and definitions

Today’s technology is opening up new ways to learn. Here, we introduce Tilt Trivia, a suite of quiz‐style, multiplayer games for use on mobile devices and tablets (Android or Apple) to help students learn simple definitions and facts. This mobile device game was built using the Unity engine and has a multiplayer functionality that runs seamlessly...

Kilb, Debi; Yang, Alan; Garrett, Nathan; Pankow, Kristine L.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Linville, Lisa

Year Published: 2018

KG²B, a collaborative benchmarking exercise for estimating the permeability of the Grimsel granodiorite - Part 2: modeling, microstructures and complementary data

Measuring and modelling the permeability of tight rocks remains a challenging task. In addition to the traditional sources of errors that affect more permeable formations (e.g. sample selection, non-representative specimens, disturbance introduced during sample acquisition and preparation), tight rocks can be particularly prone to solid–fluid...

David, Christian; Wassermann, J.; Amann, F.; Klaver, J.; Davy, C.; Sarout, J.; Esteban, L.; Rutter, E.H.; Hu, Q.; Louis, L.; Delage, P.; Lockner, David A.; Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Vanorio, T; Amann Hildenbrand, A.; Meredith, P.G.; Browning, J.; Mitchell, T.M.; Madonna, C.; Billiotte, J.; Reuschle, T.; Lasseux, D.; Fortin, J.; Lenormand, R.; Loggia, D.; Nono, F.; Boitnott, G.; Jahns, E.; Fleury. M.; Berthe, G.; Braun, P.; Grégoire, D.; Perrier, L.; Polito, P.; Jannot, Y.; Sommier, A.; Krooss, B.; Fink, R.; Clark, A.
C. David, J. Wassermann, F. Amann, J. Klaver, C. Davy, J. Sarout, L. Esteban, E.H. Rutter, Q. Hu, L. Louis, P. Delage, D.A. Lockner, A.P.S. Selvadurai, T. Vanorio, A. Amann Hildenbrand, P.G. Meredith, J. Browning, T.M. Mitchell, C. Madonna, J. Billiotte, T. Reuschl´e, D. Lasseux, J. Fortin, R. Lenormand, D. Loggia, F. Nono, G. Boitnott, E. Jahns, M. Fleury, G. Berthe, P. Brau, D. Gr´egoir, L. Perrie, P. Polit, Y. Janno, A. Sommie, B. Krooss, R. Fi, and A. Clark. (2018), KG²B: a collaborative benchmarking exercise for estimating the permeability of the Grimsel granodiorite - Part 2: modeling, microstructures and complementary data, Geophys J Int, 215, 825-843, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggy305.

Year Published: 2018

Geoelectric hazard maps for the Pacific Northwest

Maps of extreme value, horizontal component geoelectric field amplitude are constructed for the Pacific Northwest United States (and parts of neighboring Canada). Multidecade long geoelectric field time series are calculated by convolving Earth surface impedance tensors from 71 discrete magnetotelluric survey sites across the region with...

Love, Jeffrey J.; Lucas, Greg M.; Kelbert, Anna; Bedrosian, Paul A.

Year Published: 2018

Turing-style tests for UCERF3 synthetic catalogs

Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) catalogs generated from the 3rd Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3) model are unique in that they are the first to combine a complex, fault-based long-term forecast with short-term earthquake clustering statistics. We present Turing-style tests to examine whether these synthetic catalogs...

Page, Morgan T.; Van Der Elst, Nicholas

Year Published: 2018

Stronger peak ground motion, beyond the threshold to initiate a response, does not lead to larger stream discharge responses to earthquakes

The impressive number of stream gauges in Chile, combined with a suite of past and recent large earthquakes, makes Chile a unique natural laboratory to study several streams that recorded responses to multiple seismic events. We document changes in discharge in eight streams in Chile following two or more large earthquakes. In all cases, discharge...

Mohr, Christian H.; Manga, Michael; Wald, David J.
Mohr, C. H., Manga, M., & Wald, D. J. (2018). Stronger peak ground motion, beyond the threshold to initiate a response, does not lead to larger stream discharge responses to earthquakes. Geophysical Research Letters, 45. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078621

Year Published: 2018

The science, engineering applications, and policy implications of simulation-based PSHA

We summarize scientific methods for developing probabilistic seismic hazard assessments from 3-D earthquake ground motion simulations, describe current use of simulated ground motions for engineering applications, and discuss on-going efforts to incorporate these effects in the U.S. national seismic hazard model. The 3-D simulations provide...

Moschetti, Morgan P.; Chang, Sandra P.; Crouse, C.B; Frankel, Arthur; Graves, Robert; Puangnak, H; Luco, Nicolas; Goulet, Christine A.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison; Powers, Peter; Petersen, Mark D.; Callaghan, Scott; Jordan, T.H.; Milner, Kevin R.

Year Published: 2018

A novel technique for precision geometric correction of jitter distortion for the Europa Imaging System and other rolling shutter cameras

We use simulated images to demonstrate a novel technique for mitigating geometric distortions caused by platform motion (“jitter”) as two-dimensional image sensors are exposed and read out line by line (“rolling shutter”). The results indicate that the Europa Imaging System (EIS) on NASA’s Europa Clipper can likely meet its scientific goals...

Kirk, Randolph L.; Shepherd, Makayla; Sides, Stuart
International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-3, 735–739.

Year Published: 2018

Candidate products for operational earthquake forecasting illustrated using the HayWired planning scenario, including one very quick (and not‐so‐dirty) hazard‐map option

In an effort to help address debates on the usefulness of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF), we illustrate a number of OEF products that could be automatically generated in near‐real time. To exemplify, we use an M">M 7.1 mainshock on the Hayward fault, which is very similar to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) HayWired earthquake...

Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.
Field, E. H. and K. R. Milner (2018). Candidate Products for Operational Earthquake Forecasting Illustrated Using the HayWired Planning Scenario, Including One Very Quick (and Not‐So‐Dirty) Hazard‐Map Option, Seismological Research Letters, 89, 1420-1434, doi:10.1785/0220170241

Year Published: 2018

An updated method for estimating landslide‐event magnitude

Summary statistics derived from the frequency–area distribution (FAD) of inventories of triggered landslides allows for direct comparison of landslides triggered by one event (e.g. earthquake, rainstorm) with another. Such comparisons are vital to understand links between the landslide‐event and the environmental characteristics of the area...

Tanyas, Hakan; Allstadt, Kate E.; van Weston, Cees J.
Tanyas, H., Allstadt, K.E., van Westen, C.J., 2018, An updated method for estimating landslide-event magnitude, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4359

Year Published: 2018

Frictional properties and 3-D stress analysis of the southern Alpine Fault, New Zealand

New Zealand's Alpine Fault (AF) ruptures quasi-periodically in large-magnitude earthquakes. Paleoseismological evidence suggests that about half of all recognized AF earthquakes terminated at the boundary between the Central and South Westland sections of the fault. There, fault geometry and the polarity of uplift change. The South Westland...

Boulton, Carolyn; Barth, Nicolas C.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Townend, John; Faulkner, Daniel R.

Year Published: 2018

Map of recently active traces of the Rodgers Creek Fault, Sonoma County, California

The accompanying map and digital data identify recently active strands of the Rodgers Creek Fault in Sonoma County, California, interpreted primarily from the geomorphic expression of recent faulting on aerial photography and hillshade imagery derived from airborne lidar data. A recently active fault strand is defined here as having evidence...

Hecker, Suzanne; Randolph Loar, Carolyn E.
Hecker, S., and Randolph Loar, C.E., 2018, Map of recently active traces of the Rodgers Creek Fault, Sonoma County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3410, 7 p., 1 sheet, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3410.

Year Published: 2018

To catch a quake

A revolution in seismic detection technology is underway, capturing unprecedented observations of earthquakes and their impacts. These sensor innovations provide real-time ground shaking observations that could improve emergency response following damaging earthquakes and may advance our understanding of the physics of earthquake ruptures.

Cochran, Elizabeth S.
Cochran, E.S., 2018. To Catch a Quake, Nature Communications, 9, 2508, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04790-9.

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August 14, 2018

Image of the Week - Mendocino Fire

Landsat 8 captured satellite views of California’s largest wildfire on record in the summer of 2018. The Mendocino Complex Fire in northern California is a combination of two fires: the Ranch Fire and the River Fire. 

Both fires started July 27, and hot, dry, windy conditions caused them to spread rapidly. Landsat 8 imaged the area the day before the fires broke out

...
Photograph of USGS personnel talking to Science Stroll participants
August 11, 2018

Sharing Science

Sandy Baldwin, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, shares video from the kilauea volcano with Science Stroll participants.

Photograph of people waving to a drone camera at the 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll
August 11, 2018

Say Cheese!

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) demonstration at 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll

Photograph of drone demonstration 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll
August 11, 2018

2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll UAS Demo

Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) demonstration, 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll

Photograph of children and USGS drone pilot at the 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll
August 11, 2018

Future Pilots!

Sandy Brosnahan, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center's Aerial Imaging and Mapping project lead, shares the display screen of a drone in flight

Photograph of 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll participants viewing a USGS display
August 11, 2018

USGS display at the 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll

Sandy Brosnahan, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, discusses Kilauea Volcano drone footage with Science Stroll participants

Photograph of Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center staff at 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll
August 11, 2018

Woods Hole Science Stroll 2018

Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center staff, Tarandeep Kalra (pointing in light blue shirt) and Zafer Defne (orange USGS shirt) discuss oceanographic models with Science Stroll attendees

Photograph of a drone flying over the water at the 2018 Woods Hole Science Stroll
August 11, 2018

Drone Demos at 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll

USGS drone demonstration at the 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll

Photograph of a USGS drone flying over the water at the 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll
August 11, 2018

Drone Demos at 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll

USGS drone demonstration at the 2018 Woods Hole, MA Science Stroll

Photograph of a sonobuoy launch
August 10, 2018

Sonobuoy launch

Jenny White McKee watches as an expendable sonobuoy leaves the launcher during the 2018 MATRIX cruise on the R/V Hugh R. Sharp.  The sonobuoy deploys an antenna used to transmit received seismic signals back to the ship over radio frequencies at distances up to 15 km away.

Filter Total Items: 404
Date published: July 3, 2018

Rattlesnake Hills Landslide Information

What is known and what is being done, from the Washington Department of Natural Resources.

Date published: June 25, 2018

Near Realtime Maps of Possible Earthquake - Triggered Landslides

USGS scientists have been developing a system to quickly identify areas where landslides may have been triggered by a significant earthquake.

Date published: June 21, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano Erupts

Today's update for June 21st, 2018 will be the last of the daily updates on this USGS feature story.  We encourage you to keep checking the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) Kīlauea status website for daily activity updates. You can also visit the USGS Facebook page and the USGS Twitter feed as updates become available. For press inquiries, please email volcanomedia@usgs.gov.

Date published: June 18, 2018

Mountain Permafrost, Climate Change, and Rock Avalanches in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

We usually hear about landslides and avalanches that are caused by large amounts of rainfall, the shaking from earthquakes, or a volcanic eruption, but we may be hearing more about avalanches caused by the (seemingly innocuous) melting of ice in the coming years.

Date published: June 14, 2018

John Warner selected as one of AGU's Outstanding Reviewers of 2017

John Warner, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, was cited by Robert Hetland, editor of Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Date published: June 11, 2018

Slow - Motion Landslides

Sluggishly-moving earthflows can help us learn what controls the starting and stopping of landslides.

Date published: June 8, 2018

Amy East elected GSA Fellow for insights into landscape response to changes in sediment supply

The Geological Society of America (GSA) elected USGS research geologist Amy East to be a GSA Fellow, “an honor bestowed on the best of our profession,” at the spring GSA Council meeting.

Date published: June 5, 2018

Julie Bernier to serve as panelist at the 2018 State of the Coast Conference

Julie Bernier (SPCMSC geologist) was invited to serve as a panelist for the session "Extraction Related Subsidence and the Potential for Uplift" at the 2018 State of the Coast Conference.

Date published: June 4, 2018

The Past Holds the Key to the Future of Aftershock Forecasting

The outcomes of past aftershock sequences can be used to describe the range of possibilities for a current sequence.

Date published: June 1, 2018

A Possible Cause of Earthquakes in the Continental Interior

A new map of crustal stress across the U.S. shows that the plate interior stress is variable, with contributions from plate boundary stress, crustal collapse due to gravity, and more local and subtle changes to style, orientation, and earthquake rate.

Date published: June 1, 2018

Oklahoma Study Reveals Possible, Previously Unknown Sources of Earthquakes

Magnetic measurements made during low-altitude airplane flights conducted for the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Geological Survey reveal possible deep faults that may contribute to increased seismic activity in response to wastewater injection in certain portions of Oklahoma.

Date published: May 31, 2018

Mensa tour of Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center

On April 28, the San Francisco chapter of Mensa toured the Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center with research geologist Curt Storlazzi (also a Mensa member) and acting deputy director Nadine Golden.

Filter Total Items: 177