Mission Areas L2 Landing Page Tabs
Water is one of seven science mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Water's mission is to collect and disseminate reliable, impartial, and timely information that is needed to understand the Nation's water resources.Read Science Plan
Macroinvertebrate Communities Evaluated Before and After a Channel Restoration Project in Silver Creek, Blaine County
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Blaine County and The Nature Conservancy, evaluated the status of macroinvertebrate1 communities prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho. The objective of the evaluation was to determine whether 2014 remediation efforts to restore natural channel conditions in an impounded area of Silver Creek...
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gem County and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, is assessing the quality of groundwater from freshwater aquifers used for drinking-water supplies.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring water quality in the Willamette River for many years. The USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) collects water samples from the Willamette River at Portland, as well as from select sites upstream, as part of a continuing effort to assess the quality of the Nation's waters. The USGS Oregon Water Science Center has multiple...
Modeling summer month hydrological drought probabilities in the United States using antecedent flow conditions
Climate change raises concern that risks of hydrological drought may be increasing. We estimate hydrological drought probabilities for rivers and streams in the United States (U.S.) using maximum likelihood logistic regression (MLLR). Streamflow data from winter months are used to estimate the chance of hydrological drought during summer months. Daily streamflow data collected from 9,144...
Widespread occurrence and potential for biodegradation of bioactive contaminants in Congaree National Park, South Carolina
Organic contaminants with designed molecular bioactivity, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, originate from human and agricultural sources, occur frequently in surface waters, and threaten the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Congaree National Park in South Carolina (USA) is a vulnerable park unit due to its location downstream of multiple urban and...
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), is monitoring the water quality of multiple high-priority streams where natural gas pipeline crossings have been proposed. The purpose of the monitoring effort is to collect baseline water-quality data and, if the pipeline construction is approved, to monitor water quality in these...
This study is in a pilot phase during fiscal years 2017 and 2018. The purpose of the pilot phase is to identify possible technical challenges of using the USGS code GSFLOW for simulating groundwater and surface-water flow in the Colorado Plateau principal aquifer system. During the pilot phase, the project will evaluate GSFLOW in the San Juan River Basin (...
Numerical models are being used to better understand the flow of groundwater and the transport of radiochemical and chemical constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system.
The models, developed at the INL, afford scientists a framework to organize their knowledge and concepts of groundwater systems and to provide insights for water-resource managers for future water...
Geochemical models for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system are being used to better understand the flow of groundwater beneath the INL and, ultimately, to better understand the fate and transport of radiochemical and chemical constituents. As water moves through the ground, it picks up chemicals from the gases and rocks it comes in contact with.
As basaltic lava cools and hardens, the inclination, declination, and polarity of the Earth’s ambient magnetic field is recorded in the magnetic minerals of the rock. The recorded magnetic values are largely preserved and can be deciphered by paleomagnetic analysis.
We drill and maintain wells around the INL to monitor and sample groundwater, obtain basalt and sediment cores for study and analysis, and study the physical properties of the subsurface (geophysical logging).
This information helps us to improve the scientific understanding of the eastern Snake River Plain and its aquifer. In particular, we are examining the subsidence of the plain and...
The USGS collects, analyzes, and distributes data on a wide variety of water-related issues and resources. Much of our data is publicly available through the National Water Information System (NWIS), but additional datasets and analytical tools are also available.Access NWISWeb
Datasets and metadata for estimates of nitrate loads and yields from groundwater to streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed based on land use and geology
This USGS data release contains datasets, metadata, and figures associated with estimating nitrate loads and yields from groundwater to streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed based on land use and geology. There are three shapefiles with associated metadata and figures representing the shapefiles: • Catchments_GWcontribN.shp: NHDPlus catchment estimates of groundwater...
Evaluating Decadal Changes in Groundwater Quality: Groundwater quality data were collected from 5,000 wells between 1988-2001 (first sampling event) by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Project. Samples are collected in groups of 20-30 wells with similar characteristics called networks. About 1,500 of these wells in 67 networks were sampled about 10...
Model Data Sets for 1DTempPro and VFLUX simulation experiments to Determine Groundwater Seepage in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida
A series of vertical arrays of temperature sensor were placed in the bed of Indian River Lagoon
to measure temperature time series for the vertical profile. These data were used in two
numerical models, 1DTempPro and VFLUX, to estimate seepage flux rates into the lagoon.
Sediment Deposition on Floodplains and Point Bars of Powder River in Southeastern Montana from 1979 through 2017
This data release consist of the annual sediment depositional volume at five floodplain and five point bar sites on Powder River in southeastern Montana from 1979 through 2017. These 10 sites are a subgroup of a larger group of cross-sections established in 1975 and 1977 to monitor the channel changes along a 90-kilometer reach of Powder River. In addition to the sediment deposition data,...
Summary of the 11,000 published soil BD, LOI, SOC%, Hg, and RHgC measurements from 13 studies (1978-2014)
The "published" dataset includes 11,000 published measurements of sediment total mercury (STHg, nanograms per gram of soil, dry), bulk density (BD, grams per cm3 of soil, dry), percent of soil organic matter (%OM, loss on ignition, LOI), percent of soil organic carbon (%SOC, calculated using the Redfield's number), RHgC (Hg to carbon ratio), and age (YBP) from 13 published studies conducted...
Datasets from Groundwater-Quality and Select Quality-Control Data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January through December 2015 and Previously Unpublished Data from 2013-2014
Groundwater-quality data were collected from 502 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program and are included in this report. Most of the wells (500) were sampled from January through December 2015 and 2 of them were sampled in 2013. The data were collected from five types of well networks: principal aquifer study...
MODFLOW-NWT model of predictive simulations of groundwater response to selected scenarios in the Williston Basin, United States and Canada
A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to characterize groundwater
resources of the uppermost principal aquifers in the Williston structural basin in parts of
Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and of Manitoba and
Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability
of the area. The uppermost...
Groundwater quality data were collected in 5,000 wells between 1988-2001 by the National Water-Quality Assessment Project. About 1,500 of these wells were sampled again between 2002-2012 to evaluate decadal changes in groundwater quality. Monitoring wells, domestic supply wells, and some public supply wells were included in this study. All water was collected prior to treatment. Groundwater...
Two identical Radar Stage Sensors from Forest Technology Systems, were evaluated to determine if they are suitable for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic data collection. The sensors were evaluated in laboratory conditions to evaluate the distance accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperatures and distance to water ranges. Laboratory results...
A finite-difference algorithm used to simulate one-dimensional diffusion and adsorption of trichloroethene in a rock matrix
Simulations of one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion and adsorption of trichloroethene (TCE) in a
rock matrix are conducted using rock properties identified from a mudstone aquifer in the
Newark Basin, near West Trenton, New Jersey. The simulations are conducted using a
finite-difference algorithm that was prepared for this investigation to solve the equation
This dataset provides timeseries data on water quality and quantity, as collected or computed from outside sources. The format is many tables with one row per time series observation (1 tab-delimited file per site-variable combination, 1 zip file per site). This compilation of data is intended for use in estimating or interpreting metabolism. Sites were included if they met the initial...
Mercury speciation and other constituent data from deep sediment cores in Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California, 2012-16.
This dataset includes mercury and other constituent concentration and physical properties data for seven deep sediment profiles (ranging from 79 cm to 214 cm in length) collected from the thalwag of Alviso Slough, a major tributary to South San Francisco Bay (California, USA). Field sampling occurred during May 2012 (4 sites) and January 2016 (3 sites). Each profile was comprised of 1&#...
Groundwater-level, groundwater-temperature, and barometric-pressure data, July 2017 to February 2018, Hālawa Area, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi
The Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility, operated by the U.S. Navy and located in the Hālawa area, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, includes 20 underground storage tanks that can hold a total of 250 million gallons of fuel. In January 2014, the U.S. Navy notified the Hawaiʻi Department of Health and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of release of an estimated...Mitchell, Jackson N.; Oki, Delwyn S.
Flood-inundation maps for the South Platte River at Fort Morgan, Colorado, 2018
In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board (CWCB), studied floods in the historic record to produce a library of flood-inundation maps for the South Platte River at Fort Morgan, Colorado. Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.5-mile (7.2-kilometers) reach of the South Platte River at Fort...Kohn, Michael S.; Patton, Thuy T.
Variability of organic carbon content and the retention and release of trichloroethene in the rock matrix of a mudstone aquifer
Contaminants diffusing from fractures into the immobile porosity of the rock matrix are subject to prolonged residence times. Organic contaminants can adsorb onto organic carbonaceous materials in the matrix extending contaminant retention. An investigation of spatial variability of the fraction of organic carbon...Shapiro, Allen M.; Brenneis, Rebecca J.
Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the lower Sacramento River and its source waters, California, 2016
As part of a collaborative study designed to better understand water-quality conditions in the Sacramento River, surface-water samples were collected from the lower Sacramento River and five of its tributaries and then analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for a suite of 162 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates. Samples were collected...Stout, Sean M.; Orlando, James L.; McWayne-Holmes, Megan; Sanders, Corey; Hladik, Michelle L.
Completion summary for borehole TAN-2312 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho
In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed borehole TAN-2312 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. The location of borehole TAN-2312 was selected...Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K. V.
Geologic framework and hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers within Hays County, Texas
The Edwards and Trinity aquifers are classified as major aquifers by the Texas Water Development Board and are major sources of water in south-central Texas, where Hays County is located. Detailed maps and descriptions of the geologic framework and hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) of these karstic aquifers in Hays County are needed for water...Clark, Allan K.; Pedraza, Diana E.; Morris, Robert R.
Distribution of mining-related trace elements in streambed and flood-plain sediment along the middle Big River and tributaries in the Southeast Missouri Barite District, 2012–15
Lead mining first began in the Big River watershed during the 1700s. Lead was the primary metal mined throughout most of the 1700s and early 1800s and it continued to be mined until the mid-1900s. Barite mining began in the middle part of the watershed in the mid- to late 1800s. Although considerable attention has been given to concentrations of...Smith, David C.; Schumacher, John G.
Assessment of environmental flows in the middle Verde River watershed, Arizona
This report summarizes analyses of middle Verde River watershed environmental flows detailed in U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5100, “Preliminary synthesis and assessment of environmental flows in the middle Verde River watershed, Arizona," by N.V. Paretti, A.M.D. Brasher, S.L. Pearlstein, D.M. Skow, B. Gungle, and B....Gungle, Bruce W.; Paretti, Nicholas V.
Regional patterns in the geochemistry of oil-field water, southern San Joaquin Valley, California, USA
Chemical and isotopic data for water co-extracted with hydrocarbons in oil and gas fields are commonly used to examine the source of the formation water and possible impacts on groundwater in areas of oil and gas development. Understanding the geochemical variability of oil-field water could help to evaluate its...McMahon, Peter B.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Vengosh, Avner; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Gillespie, Janice M.; Davis, Tracy
100-year lower Mississippi floods in a global climate model: Characteristics and future changes
Floods in the Mississippi basin can have large negative societal, natural, and economic impacts. Understanding the drivers of floods, now and in the future, is relevant for risk management and infrastructure-planning purposes. We investigate the drivers of 100-yr-return lower Mississippi River floods using a global coupled climate model with an...van der Wiel, Karin; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Smith, James A.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jia, Liwei
Hydrologic characteristics and water quality of headwater streams and wetlands at the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Summit area, Blair and Cambria Counties, Pennsylvania, 2014–16
The Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site (ALPO) in Blair and Cambria Counties, Pennsylvania, protects historic features of the first railroad portage over the Allegheny Front and the first railroad tunnel in the United States. This report, which was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service...Cravotta, Charles A.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Penrod, Kathy A.
Current research in land, water, and agroecosystems: ASABE journals 2017 year in review
This article highlights current research into land and water resources, agroecosystems, and agricultural production systems published by the Natural Resources and Environmental Systems (NRES) community of ASABE journals (Transactions of the ASABE and Applied Engineering in Agriculture) in 2017. This article reviews the context, scope, and key...Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.
The USGS produces many types of multimedia products. Use the links below to browse our offerings of photograph galleries, podcasts and sound files, videos, aerial photos, and posters related to water. The USGS Newsroom has a Web page that highlights the main collection of multimedia products.
A WaterWatch web map shows streamgages in North and South Carolina that approached or exceeded major flood stage EST on September 19, 2018, as the former Hurricane Florence, now downgraded to a tropical depression, deluged the states with rain.
David Stillwell, USGS hydrologic technician, performs a discharge measurement to help document and forecast flooding caused by Hurricane Florence at Long Creek in Rhyne, North Carolina on Sept. 16.
A USGS storm-tide sensor, deployed in advance of Hurricane Florence's landfall. The sensors are housed in vented steel pipes a few inches wide and about a foot long. They are being installed on bridges, piers, and other structures that have a good chance of surviving the storm.
The information the sensors collect will help define the depth and duration of a storm...
A reef with little living coral and extensive bioerosion in the Florida Keys. Photo: Ilsa Kuffner, USGS.
Two views from the Rainbow Falls overlook, downstream of the Wailuku River streamgage near Hilo, Hawaii. The image on the left shows a typical base flow of about 35 cubic feet per second (cfs). The image on the right shows the early impact of Hurricane Lane with a flow of about 26,000 cfs taken at 8:35 a.m. HST, August 23, 2018. This U.S. Geological Survey streamgage has...
Research Oceanographer Lauren Toth and student volunteer Liz Whitcher drill a coral-reef core from a reef off Key West, Florida. Photo: Anastasios Stathakopoulos, USGS.
This video provides an overview of the different indirect measurement methods used by the USGS, as well as a brief description of what you'll need to survey for each.
Did you know that plants can help us understand what is happening underground? Studying plants in an area can sometimes provide information about soil conditions, water availability, and water quality. In this photo, USGS Oregon Water Science Center hydrologists Brandon Overstreet and Gabe Gordon are using a small...
Comparing 2009 vs 2014 Bank surface after erosion, Grand Canyon AZ.
Reporters: Do you want to interview USGS scientists as they measure flooding? Please contact Jennifer LaVista.
Starting on May 2 and lasting for about two days, a helicopter towing a large, cylindrical sensor will make low-level flights over parts of Cedar Rapids as part of a groundwater survey.
2017 Snowmelt Runoff Signals Good News for Walker Lake but Raises Flooding Concerns Along Walker River
USGS model simulations suggest that Walker Lake will rise by as much as 15 to 18 feet this year, the most in a single year in recorded history.
While freshwater ecosystems cover only a small amount of the land surface in Alaska, they transport and emit a significant amount of carbon, according to new U.S. Geological Survey research. An invited feature article for Ecological Applications provides the first-ever major aquatic carbon flux assessment for the entire state. Carbon flux refers to the rate of carbon transfer between pools.
The new “Water On-the-Go” mobile app gives the public easy access to current conditions in streams across Texas. This product was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to help raise water awareness during both floods and normal conditions.
A new report illustrates how groundwater pumping can affect the amount of water available in streams within the Malad-Lower Bear River Area in Utah. The product was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights.
New USGS assessment provides fresh insights into nation’s brackish groundwater inventory
USGS provides a long-term look at changes in the quality of our nation’s rivers and streams
Two decades of harmful algal bloom, nutrient and sediment research by the U.S. Geological Survey is helping to support Wichita’s long-term vision of a sustainable water supply into the future. Early warning indicators of harmful algal blooms have been developed for Cheney Reservoir, Kansas, according to a new USGS publication done in cooperation with the City of Wichita, Kansas.
Media and the public are invited to attend a free meeting about South Dakota water issues on Thursday, April 6, in Rapid City, South Dakota.