The USGS provides science about natural hazards that threaten lives and livelihoods; the water, energy, minerals, and other natural resources we rely on; the health of our ecosystems and environment; and the impacts of climate and land-use change. Our scientists develop new methods and tools to supply timely, relevant, and useful information about the Earth and its processes. Learn more below.
What minerals produce the colors in fireworks?
Mineral elements provide the color in fireworks. Additional colors can be made by mixing elements: Color Produced Element(s) Primary mineral ore(s) bright greens barium barite deep reds strontium celestite blues copper chalcopyrite yellows sodium halite (rock salt) brilliant orange strontium + sodium celestite, halite silvery white titanium + zirconium + magnesium alloys ilmenite, rutile, zircon...
How can I find U.S. Bureau of Mines publications?
After 85 years of service, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) closed in 1996. Certain functions, such as the collection, analysis, and dissemination of minerals information, have been returned to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For information on former USBM programs or publications, please see the following sources: The National Technical Reports Library (part of the National Technical...
Where can I find information about mineral commodities?
For statistical information about mineral commodities, visit the USGS Commodity Statistics and Information website. For locations outside the United States, USGS International Minerals Statistics and Information is the best starting point.
Our Water, Our Lives: California
This Teacher Guide includes background information, lesson plans, and examples of student answers for four lessons about water resources in California. The Student Worksheet includes student activities and questions. It can be downloaded and printed or transferred to a digital classroom document.
Our Water, Our Lives: The Chesapeake Bay Watershed
This Teacher Guide includes background information, lesson plans, and examples of student answers for three lessons about the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Student Worksheet includes student activities and questions. This can be downloaded and printed or transferred to a digital classroom document.
USGS On The Road
Watch all episodes of USGS On The Road, a web-series about USGS scientists and water science from all corners of Maryland, Delaware, and DC.