Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Pyroclastic flows move fast and destroy everything in their path

Heed evacuation warnings if a volcano is known to be active. If you witness a pyroclastic flow, run in the opposite direction as quickly as possible.

Eruption of Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, November 2009. Light gray to white plume (left) is steam and minor ash from the summit of the volcano. A darker gray cloud is a pyroclastic flow traveling down the volcano's flank on the right.

Pyroclastic flows contain a high-density mix of hot lava blocks, pumice, ash and volcanic gas. They move at very high speed down volcanic slopes, typically following valleys. Most pyroclastic flows consist of two parts: a lower (basal) flow of coarse fragments that moves along the ground, and a turbulent cloud of ash that rises above the basal flow. Ash may fall from this cloud over a wide area downwind from the pyroclastic flow.

Pyroclastic flows form in different ways:

  • Collapse of eruption column: during a highly explosive eruption, the column ejected upwards into the atmosphere cools and can become too cool and dense to maintain upward momentum.
  • "Boiling over" from eruptive vent: during an explosive eruption, material is erupted without forming a high plume and rapidly moves down slope.
  • Collapse of lava domes or flows: The fronts of lava flows or domes can become so steep that they collapse due to gravitational force.

Pyroclastic flows destroy nearly everything in their path

With rock fragments ranging in size from ash to boulders that travel across the ground at speeds typically greater than 80 km per hour (50 mph), pyroclastic flowsknock down, shatter, bury or carry away nearly all objects and structures in their path. The extreme temperatures of rocks and gas inside pyroclastic flows, generally between 200°C and 700°C (390-1300°F), can ignite fires and melt snow and ice.

Building remnant in Francisco Leon destroyed by pyroclastic surges and flows during eruption of El Chichon volcano in Mexico 1982. Reinforcement rods in concrete bend in direction of flow.

Pyroclastic flows vary considerably in size and speed, but even relatively small flows that move less than 5 km (3 mi) from a volcano can destroy buildings, forests, and farmland. On the margins of pyroclastic flows, death and serious injury to people and animals may result from burns and inhalation of hot ash and gases.

Pyroclastic flows generally follow valleys or other low-lying areas and, depending on the volume of rock debris carried by the flow, they can deposit layers of loose rock fragments to depths ranging from less than one meter to more than 200 m (up to about 700 ft).

Pyroclastic flows can also lead to secondary hazards, especially flooding and lahars by:

  • Eroding, melting and mixing with snow and ice, thereby sending a sudden torrent downstream.
  • Damming or blocking streams in volcanic valleys, which may create lakes behind the blockage that eventually overtop and erode the blockage producing a rush of water and volcanic material downstream.
  • Increasing the rate of stream runoff and erosion during rainstorms due to the creation of an easily eroded landscape with sparse vegetation.