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gTOOLS, an open-source MATLAB program for processing high precision, relative gravity data for time-lapse gravity monitoring

gTOOLS is an open-source software for the processing of relative gravity data. gTOOLS is available in MATLAB and as a compiled executable to be run under the free MATLAB Runtime Compiler. The software has been designed for time-lapse (temporal) gravity monitoring. Although programmed to read the Scintrex CG-5 and CG-6 gravimeters output data files, it can be easily modified to read data files from

From anecdotes to quantification: advances in characterizing volcanic eruption impacts on the built environment

Over the past 20 years, our understanding of volcanic eruption impacts on the built environment has transformed from being primarily observational with small datasets to one grounded in field investigations, laboratory experiments, and quantitative modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder collaboration and co-creation. Here, we summarize key advances and knowledge gaps of impacts across volcanic

Strengthening local volcano observatories through global collaborations

We consider the future of volcano observatories in a world where new satellite technologies and global data initiatives have greatly expanded over the last two decades. Observatories remain the critical tie between the decision-making authorities and monitoring data. In the coming decade, the global scientific community needs to continue to collaborate in a manner that will strengthen volcano obse

Crater growth and lava-lake dynamics revealed through multitemporal terrestrial lidar scanning at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi

Lava lake surfaces display the tops of active magma columns and respond to eruption variables such as magmatic pressure, convection, degassing, and cooling, as well as interactions with the craters that contain them. However, they are challenging to study owing to the numerous hazards that accompany these eruptions, and they are typically difficult to observe because the emitted gas plumes obscure

Multi-model comparison of computed debris flow runout for the 9 January 2018 Montecito, California post-wildfire event

Hazard assessment for post-wildfire debris flows, which are common in the steep terrain of the western United States, has focused on the susceptibility of upstream basins to generate debris flows. However, reducing public exposure to this hazard also requires an assessment of hazards in downstream areas that might be inundated during debris flow runout. Debris flow runout models are widely availab

Quantifying non-thermal silicate weathering using Ge/Si and Si isotopes in rivers draining the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, USA

In active volcanic regions, high-temperature chemical reactions in the hydrothermal system consume CO2 sourced from magma or from the deep crust, whereas reactions with silicates at shallow depths mainly consume atmospheric CO2. Numerous studies have quantified the load of dissolved solids in rivers that drain volcanic regions to determine chemical weathering rates and atmospheric CO2 consumption

Tracking secondary lahar flow paths and characterizing pulses and surges using infrasound array networks at Volcán de Fuego, Guatemala

Lahars are one of the greatest hazards at many volcanoes, including Volcán de Fuego (Guatemala). On 1 December 2018 at 8:00pm local Guatemala time (2:00:00 UTC), an hour-long lahar event was detected at Volcán de Fuego by two permanent seismo-acoustic stations along the Las Lajas channel on the southeast side. To establish the timing, duration, and speed of the lahar, infrasound array records were

A decade of geodetic change at Kīlauea’s summit—Observations, interpretations, and unanswered questions from studies of the 2008–2018 Halemaʻumaʻu eruption

On March 19, 2008, a small explosion heralded the onset of an extraordinary eruption at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. The following 10 years provided unprecedented access to an actively circulating lava lake located within a region monitored by numerous geodetic tools, including Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), tilt, and gravity. These d

Density structure of the island of Hawai’i and the implications for gravity-driven motion of the south flank of Kilauea volcano

The discovery that large landslides dissected the Hawaiian islands, scattering debris over thousands of square kilometers of seafloor, changed our ideas of island growth and evolution. The evidence is consistent with catastrophic flank collapse during volcano growth, and draws our focus to the currently active island of Hawai’i, the volcanoes Mauna Loa and Kīlauea, and particularly to the actively

Influence of permafrost type and site history on losses of permafrost carbon after thaw

We quantified permafrost peat plateau and post-thaw carbon (C) stocks across a chronosequence in Interior Alaska to evaluate the amount of C lost with thaw. Macrofossil reconstructions revealed three stratigraphic layers of peat: (1) a base layer of fen/marsh peat, (2) peat from a forested peat plateau (with permafrost) and, (3) collapse-scar bog peat (at sites where permafrost thaw has occurred).

Fitting jet noise similarity spectra to volcano infrasound data

Infrasound (low-frequency acoustic waves) has proven useful to detect and characterize subaerial volcanic activity, but understanding the infrasonic source during sustained eruptions is still an area of active research. Preliminary comparison between acoustic eruption spectra and the jet noise similarity spectra suggests that volcanoes can produce an infrasonic form of jet noise from turbulence. T

A 40-year story of river sediment at Mount St. Helens

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State unleashed one of the largest debris avalanches (landslide) in recorded history. The debris avalanche deposited 3.3 billion cubic yards of material into the upper North Fork Toutle River watershed and obstructed the Columbia River shipping channel downstream. From the eruption on May 18, 1980, to September 30, 2018, the Toutle River transpor