Where can I get my well water tested?

Contact your county or state health department or check with your State Certification Officer for a list of state certified laboratories in your area that do water testing. The cost will vary, depending on the laboratory and the test(s), but people usually consider the cost to be reasonable.

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How can I find the depth to the water table in a specific location?

The depth to the water table can change (rise or fall) depending on the time of year. During the late winter and spring when accumulated snow starts to melt and spring rainfall is plentiful, water on the surface infiltrates into the ground and the water table rises. When water-loving plants start to grow again in the spring and precipitation gives...

What determines if a well will go dry?

A well is said to have gone dry when water levels drop below a pump intake. This does not mean that a dry well will never have water in it again, as the water level may come back through time as recharge increases. The water level in a well depends on a number of things, such as the depth of the well, the type (confined or unconfined) of aquifer...

What is the Ground Water Atlas of the United States?

This Ground Water Atlas of the United States is a series of USGS publications that describe the location, the extent, and the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the important aquifers of the Nation. The series consists of 13 chapters that describe the regional groundwater resources that collectively cover 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the U...

How frequently are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected in groundwater?

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are widely used in the manufacture of many products including refrigerants, plastics, adhesives, paints, and petroleum products, have been detected in about one-third of the wells sampled by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Chloroform and other...

Where can I find detailed sampling methods for surface water and groundwater?

USGS protocols for the collection of groundwater and surface-water samples have been published in the report National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. The National Field Manual was published in chapters; copies of each chapter are available online.

If the ground filters water, is groundwater always clean?

Water drawn from a well was once precipitation that fell onto Earth's surface. It seeped into the ground and, over time, occupied the porous space in some subsurface material. Big particles that are in surface streams, such as leaf chunks, will not be seen in groundwater. So, yes, big particles are filtered out by the ground, along with some...

How important is groundwater?

Groundwater, which is in aquifers below the surface of the Earth, is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. Groundwater is the source of about 37 percent of the water that county and city water departments supply to households and businesses (public supply). It provides drinking water for more than 90 percent of the rural population...

What is groundwater?

Groundwater is water that exists underground in saturated zones beneath the land surface. The upper surface of the saturated zone is called the water table. Contrary to popular belief, groundwater does not form underground rivers. It fills the pores and fractures in underground materials such as sand, gravel, and other rock, much the same way that...
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Date published: March 9, 2017

How Well Do You Know Groundwater

Groundwater, which flows out of sight through aquifers beneath our feet, is one of the Nation’s most important natural resources. In recognition of National Groundwater Awareness Week, March 5–11, 2017, here’s an opportunity to put your knowledge of this vital resource to the test!

Attribution: Water Resources
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April 27, 2017

Potential Corrosivity of Untreated Groundwater in the United States

  • Corrosive groundwater, if untreated, can dissolve lead and other metals from pipes.
  • National maps have been prepared to identify the occurrence of potentially corrosive groundwater in the U.S.
  • These findings have the greatest implication for the 44 million people dependent on domestic wells for drinking water.
Photo of a young girl drinking water, which likely originated from groundwater sources. 
January 17, 2017

A young girl drinks water, which likely originated from groundwater

A young girl drinks water, which likely originated from groundwater sources. 

The USGS is near the midpoint of a complex undertaking to survey the quality of the nation’s largest drinking-water resource. From 2012 – 2023, the USGS is assessing groundwater throughout the country through extensive sampling. The latest results from five regional aquifers are now

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Drinking water from tap
December 31, 2016

Drinking water from tap

The quality of the water we drink can potentially impact our health. The USGS has several programs and cooperative projects that characterize the quality of selected rivers and aquifers used as sources of drinking water to community water systems in the United States.

Attribution: Water Resources
Girls getting a glass of water at a well pump at The Tollgate House, Meridian Historical Village, Okemos, MI
December 13, 2016

Girls at water well pump

Girls getting a glass of water at a well pump.

A scientist working in a laboratory
December 31, 2015

A Scientist Working in a Laboratory Measuring Pharmaceuticals in Water

A PhD fellow from the University of York measuring pharmaceutical concentrations in samples collected from the Rivers Foss and Ouse, United Kingdom, during her work at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory. A new study evaluated

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Nich Benson - Lab Notes
December 31, 2008

Nich Benson - Lab Notes

Nich Benson - Lab Notes

Image: Acidifying a Drinking Water Quality Sample for MTBE Analysis

Acidifying a Drinking Water Quality Sample for MTBE Analysis

Sample collected from Madison Springs Hut in the White Mountains (~ 5,000 ft above sea level).

USGS scientist Dan Riddle processing water-quality samples from a well in Nevada

USGS scientist Dan Riddle processing water-quality samples from a well

USGS scientist Dan Riddle processing water-quality samples from a well in Nevada.