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Landsat Geometry

Accurate geometry ensures that Landsat data pixels are aligned, and that the data can be used easily in time series analysis. The exceptional geometric qualities of Landsat 8 and Landsat 9 OLI/TIRS data are used to improve the reference database used to precisely and accurately geolocate all Landsat Level-1 data products. Landsat Science products inherit the geometry of Landsat Level-1 data. 

Return to Landsat Calibration/Validation Overview


To assure Landsat Level-1 data are suitable for time-series analysis, products need to be co-registered. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) reported in the metadata (MTL.txt) file can be used to filter the precision and terrain corrected Level-1 data products to meet application specific requirements.


Landsat Levels of Processing

All Landsat Level-1 data products are created using the best available processing level for each particular scene.  Visit the Landsat Levels of Processing page for more information on how Landsat data are processed. 


Landsat Ground Control Points (GCPs)

Ground Control Points are defined as points on the surface of the earth of known location used to geo-reference Landsat Level-1 data. Visit the Landsat Ground Control Points page to learn more about how GCPs improve Landsat data quality. 


Spatial Performance of Landsat 8 Instruments Analyzed

During the Landsat 8 satellite prelaunch testing, performance analysis was conducted on the spatial response of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensors (TIRS). Visit the Spatial Performance of Landsat 8 Instruments page to learn more how performance was measured.