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Material properties and triggering mechanisms of an andesitic lava dome collapse at Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, revealed using the finite element method

Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) is an active andesitic volcano with a history of explosive activity, dome extrusion, and structural collapse during the Holocene. The most recent major (> 1 km3) dome collapse occurred in November 1964, producing a ~ 1.5 km3 debris avalanche that traveled over 15 km from the vent and triggered a phreatic explosion followed by a voluminous (~ 0.8 km3) eruption

Onset and evolution of Kilauea’s 2018 flank eruption and summit collapse from continuous gravity

Prior to the 2018 lower East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, continuous gravimeters operated on the vent rims of ongoing eruptions at both the summit and Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō. These instruments captured the onset of the 2018 lower ERZ eruption and the effects of lava withdrawal from both locales, providing constraints on the timing and style of activity and the physi

The Independent Volcanic Eruption Source Parameter Archive (IVESPA, version 1.0): A new observational database to support explosive eruptive column model validation and development

Eruptive column models are powerful tools for investigating the transport of volcanic gas and ash, reconstructing past explosive eruptions, and simulating future hazards. However, the evaluation of these models is challenging as it requires independent estimates of the main model inputs (e.g. mass eruption rate) and outputs (e.g. column height). There exists no database of independently estimated

Sources of volcanic tremor associated with the summit caldera collapse during the 2018 east rift eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

Volcanic tremor occurring at the beginning of the 2018 Kīlauea eruption is characterized using both seismic and tilt data recorded at the Kīlauea summit. An automatic seismic network-based approach detects several types of tremor including (a) 0.5–1 Hz long-period tremor preceding the eruption, located at the south-southwest edge of Halema'uma'u Crater and attributed to the quasi-steady radiation

The 2008-2010 subsidence of Dallol volcano on the 2 spreading Erta Ale ridge: InSAR observations and source models

In this work, we study the subsidence of Dallol, an explosive crater and hydrothermal area along the spreading Erta Ale ridge of Afar (Ethiopia). No volcanic products exist at the surface. However, a diking episode in 2004, accompanied by dike-induced faulting, indicates that Dallol is an active volcanic area. The 2004 diking episode was followed by quiescence until subsidence started in 2008. We

Quantifying eruptive and background seismicity, deformation, degassing, and thermal emissions at volcanoes in the United States during 1978–2020

An important aspect of volcanic hazard assessment is determination of the level and character of background activity at a volcano so that deviations from background (called unrest) can be identified. Here, we compile the instrumentally recorded eruptive and noneruptive activity for 161 US volcanoes between 1978 and 2020. We combine monitoring data from four techniques: seismicity, ground deformati

Heat flux from a vapor-dominated hydrothermal field beneath Yellowstone Lake

We report results from 149 heat flux measurements made over n ∼2-year interval at sites in and around a vapor-dominated geothermal field located at water depths of ∼100–120 m in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming. Measurements of both in situ temperature and thermal conductivity as a function of depth were made with a 1 m probe via a remotely operated vehicle, and are combined to compute the vertical condu

How would a volcanic eruption affect your Tribe?

Volcanic eruptions are rare, but when they occur, they can profoundly affect nearby communities. In order to determine which communities are at risk, and in order for those communities to mitigate their risk, communities need to know whether they are in or near volcano hazard zones and have basic information about the hazards within those zones. In addition, individuals need to know whether they l

Zircon geochronology and geochemistry of Quaternary rhyolite domes of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California

The Quaternary Coso volcanic field (CVF) is a compositionally bimodal volcanic field located within a releasing bend along the eastern range-front Sierra Nevada fault zone in California's southern Owens Valley. The erupted products of CVF silicic magmatism since ~1 Ma comprise 38 high-silica rhyolite domes, with the volumetric majority (~99%) of rhyolite emplaced within the past ~300 ka. The CVF h

Comparative rhyolite systems: Inferences from vent patterns and eruptive episodicities: Eastern California and Laguna del Maule

Distilling my experience in having field mapped in detail the volcanic fields at Laguna del Maule and Long Valley and having worked out their time-volume-composition magmatic histories, I compare and contrast the postglacial rhyolites of the former with six multi-vent eruptive sequences of rhyolite in California. Compilations and discussions are made of volcanic-field areas and longevities, their

Mass eruption rate, column height, and duration dataset for volcanic eruptions

This report describes a dataset assembled and curated as part of a project funded by the Earthquake Commission Biennial Grant 20781, Towards real-time probabilistic ash deposition forecasting for Aotearoa New Zealand. This dataset compiles measured, estimated, and calculated values for volcanic eruption mass eruption rates, column heights, and durations. Data comes from 213 eruptions, with about a

Yellowstone Volcano Observatory 2020 annual report

The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) monitors volcanic and hydrothermal activity associated with the Yellowstone magmatic system, conducts research into magmatic processes occurring beneath Yellowstone Caldera, and issues timely warnings and guidance related to potential future geologic hazards. This report summarizes the activities and findings of YVO during the year 2020, focusing on the Ye