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Five-year management plan for establishing and operating NVEWS—The National Volcano Early Warning System

On March 12, 2019, Congress passed the John D. Dingell, Jr., Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act (Public Law 116–9; 133 Stat. 580), in which Title V, §5001 (43 U.S.C. 31k) authorized the establishment of the National Volcano Early Warning and Monitoring System (NVEWS) within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Conceived by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program in 2005, NVEWS is designed to be a

Evaluating lava flow propagation models with a case study from the 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

The 2018 lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption of Kīlauea, Hawai’i, provides an excellent natural laboratory with which to test models of lava flow propagation. During early stages of eruption crises, the most useful lava flow propagation equations utilize readily determined parameters and require fewer a priori assumptions about future behavior of the flow. Here, we leverage the numerous observati

High-speed lava flow infrasound from Kīlauea’s fissure 8 and its utility in monitoring effusion rate

The 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano produced large and destructive lava flows from the fissure 8 (Ahu ‘aila ‘au) vent with flow velocities up to 17 m s−1, highly variable effusion rates over both short (minutes) and long (hours) time scales, and a proximal channel or spillway that displayed flow features similar to open channel flow in river systems. Monitoring such dynamic vent and lava flow sys

Evaluating the state-of-the-art in remote volcanic eruption characterization Part I: Raikoke volcano, Kuril Islands

Raikoke, a small, unmonitored volcano in the Kuril Islands, erupted in June 2019. We integrate data from satellites (including Sentinel-2, TROPOMI, MODIS, Himawari-8), the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network, and global lightning detection network (GLD360) with information from local authorities and social media to retrospectively characterize the eruptive sequence and improve

Multidisciplinary constraints on magma compressibility, the pre-eruptive exsolved volatile fraction, and the H2O/CO2 molar ratio for the 2006 Augustine eruption, Alaska

Geodetically modeled reservoir volume changes during volcanic eruptions are commonly much smaller than the observed eruptive volumes. This discrepancy is thought to be partially due to the compressibility of magma, which is largely controlled by the presence of exsolved volatiles. The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, produced an eruptive volume that was ∼3 times larger than the geodetic

Origin of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits at Harriet Point near Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

Unconsolidated boulder-rich diamicton units exposed in sea cliffs at Harriet Point southeast of Redoubt Volcano were evaluated to better understand their provenance relative to the late Quaternary eruptive history of the volcano. A previous study concluded that deposits at Harriet Point were emplaced by a large volcanic landslide originating on the southeast flank of Redoubt Volcano (Begét and Nye

Helium-carbon systematics of groundwaters in the Lassen Peak Region

Carbon dioxide emissions from active subaerial volcanoes represent 20–50% of the annual global volcanic CO2 flux (Barry et al., 2014). Passive degassing of carbon from the flanks of volcanoes, and the associated accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) within nearby groundwater, also represents a potentially important, yet poorly constrained flux of carbon to the surface (Werner et al., 20

The structure and volume of large geysers in Yellowstone National Park, USA and the mineralogy and chemistry of their silica sinter deposits

Siliceous sinter is formed by biogenic and abiogenic opal deposition around hot springs and geysers. Using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry we generated three-dimensional models of Giant and Castle Geysers from the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. We use these models to calculate an approximate mass of sinter for each (~2 and ~ 5 kton, respectively) and estimate a range of plau

Post audit of simulated groundwater flow to a short-lived (2019-2020) crater lake at Kīlauea Volcano

About 14.5 months after the 2018 eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, liquid water started accumulating in the deepened summit crater, forming a lake that attained 51 m depth before rapidly boiling off on December 20, 2020, when an eruption from the crater wall poured lava into the lake. Modeling the growth of the crater lake at Kīlauea summit is important for assessing the po

Evaluating the state-of-the-art in remote volcanic eruption characterization Part II: Ulawun volcano, Papua New Guinea

Retrospective eruption characterization is valuable for advancing our understanding of volcanic systems and evaluating our observational capabilities, especially with remote technologies (defined here as a space-borne system or non-local, ground-based instrumentation which include regional and remote infrasound sensors). In June 2019, the open-system Ulawun volcano, Papua New Guinea, produced a VE

A geologic field guide to S P Mountain and its lava flow, San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

IntroductionWe created this guide to introduce the user to the San Francisco Volcanic Field as a terrestrial analog site for planetary volcanic processes. For decades, the San Francisco Volcanic Field has been used to teach scientists to recognize the products of common types of volcanic eruptions and associated volcanic features. The volcanic processes and products observed in this volcanic field