Aida Farag, Ph.D.
Science and Products
Brine Contamination to Plains and Potholes Environments from Energy Development in the Williston Basin
Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Resources: An Assessment of the Potential Effects of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources in the United States
Shale gas is a key source of onshore domestic energy for the United States and production of this resource is increasing rapidly. Development and extraction of shale gas requires hydraulic fracturing, which entails horizontal drilling, perforation of steel casing and cement grout using explosive charges, and expansion of fractures using fluids under high pressure. Concern over potential...
Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota—Species of conservation concern: Chapter D in Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota
The ecosystems of the Williston Basin provide direct and indirect benefits to society. These benefits include carbon sequestration, flood control, nutrient rich soils for agricultural productivity, and habitat for wildlife. This chapter’s main focus is on the effects of energy development on species that occupy the ecosystems in the Williston...Post van der Burg, Max; Symstad, Amy J.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Mushet, David M.; Larson, Diane L.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Tangen, Brian A.; Anteau, Michael J.
The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming
We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km...Harper, David; Farag, Aida
Restoration of contaminated ecosystems: adaptive management in a changing climate
Three case studies illustrate how adaptive management (AM) has been used in ecological restorations that involve contaminants. Contaminants addressed include mercury, selenium, and contaminants and physical disturbances delivered to streams by urban stormwater runoff. All three cases emphasize the importance of broad stakeholder input early and...Farag, Aida; Larson, Diane L.; Stauber, Jenny; Stahl, Ralph; Isanhart, John; McAbee, Kevin T.; Walsh, Christopher J.
Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota
Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples...Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.
Restoration of impaired ecosystems: An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure? introduction, overview, and key messages from a SETAC-SER workshop
A workshop on Restoration of Impaired Ecosystems was held in Jackson, Wyoming, in June 2014. Experts from Australia, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States in ecotoxicology, restoration, and related fields from both the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Society for Ecological Restoration convened to...Farag, Aïda M.; Hull, Ruth N.; Clements, Will H.; Glomb, Steve; Larson, Diane L.; Stahl, Ralph G.; Stauber, Jenny
Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites
Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline...Rohr, Jason R.; Farag, Aïda M.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Clements, William H.; Smith, James R.; Ulrich, Cheryl P.; Woods, Richard
Assessment of surface water chloride and conductivity trends in areas of unconventional oil and gas development - Why existing national data sets cannot tell us what we would like to know
Heightened concern regarding the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas development on regional water quality has emerged, but the few studies on this topic are limited in geographic scope. Here we evaluate the potential utility of national and publicly available water-quality data sets for addressing questions regarding unconventional...Bowen, Zachary H.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Cade, Brian S.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Farag, Aïda M.; Mott, David N.; Potter, Christopher J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Clark, Melanie L.; Kappel, William M.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Paschke, Suzanne; Susong, David D.; Varela, Brian A.
Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats
Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries...Brittingham, Margaret C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Bowen, Zachary H.
In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate
Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments,...Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don
A review of environmental impacts of salts from produced waters on aquatic resources
Salts are frequently a major constituent of waste waters produced during oil and gas production. These produced waters or brines must be treated and/or disposed and provide a daily challenge for operators and resource managers. Some elements of salts are regulated with water quality criteria established for the protection of aquatic wildlife, e.g...Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.
The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated...Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.
Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory
Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested...Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don