Seth Munson is an ecologist with the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona. His research focuses on plant-soil interactions in dryland ecosystems and how these interactions are affected by climate and land use changes.
Much of Dr. Munson's research aims to understand the dynamics of dryland ecosystems at long temporal and broad spatial scales, and employs a multidisciplinary approach. His work seeks to improve the management of arid and semi-arid lands, including determining effective ecological restoration strategies, and is done in close collaboration with several land management agencies.
Check the Science Tab Below for a List of Current Research Projects.
Research Interests: Plant Ecology, Ecosystem Ecology, Dryland Ecology, Restoration Ecology, Soil Erosion
Research Ecologist, US Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Flagstaff, AZ
Adjunct Faculty, Northern Arizona University, Department of Biological Sciences, Flagstaff, AZ
Adjunct Faculty, Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ
Jan 2011 - Dec 2013: Research Ecologist (Mendenhall Fellow), US Geological Survey, Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, CO
Dec 2008 - Jan 2011: Ecologist, US Geological Survey, Canyonlands Research Station, Moab, Utah
May 2004 - Nov 2008; Research Assistant, Colorado State University, Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Fort Collins, CO
Sep 2002 – May 2004; Research Associate, University of New Mexico, Biology Department, Albuquerque, NM
Education and Certifications
Ph.D. Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, May 2009
B.A. Biology, Earlham College, Richmond, IN, May 2001
Science and Products
Informing seed transfer guidelines and native plant materials development: Research supporting restoration across the Colorado Plateau and beyond
Climate Adaptation Strategies for Arid Grasslands
Southern Border Fuels Management Initiative
The Gemini Solar Project
A global synthesis of multi-year drought effects on terrestrial ecosystems
Learning From the Past and Planning for the Future: Experience-Driven Insight Into Managing for Ecosystem Transformations Induced by Drought and Wildfire
RestoreNet: Distributed Field Trial Network for Dryland Restoration
Southwest Energy Development and Drought (SWEDD)
Understanding Changes to the Timing of Natural Events (Phenology) for Plants in the Water-Limited Southwest
Ecology and Management of Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: State of the Science
Restoration and Ecosystem Recovery Dynamics in Arid and Semiarid Landscapes
Plant Responses to Drought and Climate Change in the Southwestern United States
Maps of early season invasive grasses and hot spots in the Mojave Ecoregion from 2009-2020
Remotely sensed fine fuel data for Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) from 2015 to 2020
RestoreNet subplot data for 21 sites within major dryland ecoregions throughout the southwestern United States, 2018 - 2021
Primary production and precipitation data along an elevation gradient in and adjacent to the San Francisco Mountains near Flagstaff, Arizona - 2015-2020
Predicted biomass of fine fuel for Altar Valley, Arizona, 2021
Remotely sensed fine-fuel data for Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) from 2015 to 2020
Plant trait and soil moisture data associated with ontogenetic trait shifts - seedlings display high trait variability during early stages of development
Data for Dust deposited on snow cover in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, 2011-2016: Compositional variability bearing on snow-melt effects
Pinyon and Juniper location data, including a literature review citation list of Pinyon-Juniper systems from 1909 to 2018
Dataset for plant production responses to climate across water-limited regions
Plant production responses to precipitation differ along an elevation gradient and are enhanced under extremes (Northern Arizona, 1991-2016)
Rangeland Ecology Monitoring Data, Utah, 1967-2013
Plant water-use strategies predict restoration success across degraded drylands
Soil surface treatments and precipitation timing determine seedling development across southwestern US restoration sites
Do nurse plant effects strengthen over time? Results from 12 years of desert habitat restoration
Effectiveness of a decade of treatments to reduce invasive buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)
The detection and attribution of extreme reductions in vegetation growth across the global land surface
Divergent climate impacts on C3 versus C4 grasses imply widespread 21st century shifts in grassland functional composition
Grazing and ecosystem service delivery in global drylands
Geologic, geomorphic, and edaphic underpinnings of dryland ecosystems: Colorado Plateau landscapes in a changing world
Conflict of energies: Spatially modeling mule deer caloric expenditure in response to oil and gas development
Functional composition of plant communities mediates biomass effects on ecosystem service recovery across an experimental dryland restoration network
Primary production responses to extreme changes in North American Monsoon precipitation vary by elevation and plant functional composition through time
Supporting the development and use of native plant materials for restoration on the Colorado Plateau (Fiscal Year 2021 Report)
**Disclaimer: The views expressed in Non-USGS publications are those of the author and do not represent the views of the USGS, Department of the Interior, or the U.S. Government.
Science and Products
Filter Total Items: 16
Informing seed transfer guidelines and native plant materials development: Research supporting restoration across the Colorado Plateau and beyondAs restoration needs for natural landscapes grow due to higher frequency and/or intensity disturbances, pressure from invasive species, and impacts resulting from changing climates, considerable time and resources are being invested to guide the development and deployment of native plant materials (NPMs). Across lower elevations of the Colorado Plateau, a region composed primarily of public land...
Climate Adaptation Strategies for Arid GrasslandsHelping National Parks in the 4-Corners region manage grasslands in a changing climate.
Southern Border Fuels Management InitiativeThe Southern Border Fuels Management Initiative was initiated in 2017 to reduce wildfire risk and improve border security by actively conducting fuels treatments on Department of Interior (DOI) and tribal lands within 100 miles of the US-Mexico border. The initiative supports Executive Order 13855: Promoting Active Management of America’s Forests, Rangelands, and Other Federal Land to Improve...
The Gemini Solar ProjectThe United States is developing renewable energy resources, especially solar, at a rapid rate. Although renewable energy development is widely perceived by the public as “green technology,” construction, operation, maintenance, and eventual decommissioning of facilities all have known and potential negative impacts to natural resources, including plant communities and wildlife. This is especially...
A global synthesis of multi-year drought effects on terrestrial ecosystemsDrought impacts on terrestrial ecosystems have increased globally in the 21st century, and droughts are expected to become more frequent, extreme, and spatially extensive in the future. Historical site-based observations are inadequate to predict how future extreme water deficits will affect the global terrestrial surface, because future droughts and their impacts may be more extreme than they hav
Learning From the Past and Planning for the Future: Experience-Driven Insight Into Managing for Ecosystem Transformations Induced by Drought and WildfireDrought and wildfire pose enormous threats to the integrity of natural resources that land managers are charged with protecting. Recent observations and modeling forecasts indicate that these stressors will likely produce catastrophic ecosystem transformations, or abrupt changes in the condition of plants, wildlife, and their habitats, in regions across the country in coming decades. In this p
RestoreNet: Distributed Field Trial Network for Dryland RestorationStarting in 2017, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers and land managers are co-producing a network of restoration field trial sites on Department of Interior (DOI) and surrounding lands in the southwestern U.S. The network systematically tests restoration treatments across a broad range of landscape, soil, and climate conditions. Each site in the network is used to test suitable seed mixes...
Southwest Energy Development and Drought (SWEDD)Deserts of the southwestern US are replete with oil and gas deposits as well as sites for solar, wind, and geothermal energy production. In the past, many of these resources have been too expensive to develop, but increased demand and new technologies have led to an increase in exploration and development. However, desert ecosystems generally have low resilience to disturbance. More frequent...
Understanding Changes to the Timing of Natural Events (Phenology) for Plants in the Water-Limited SouthwestIn many places around the world, spring events, like warming temperatures, are coming earlier and fall events are coming later than they have in the past. These changes have implications for the phenology, or the timing of natural life events (e.g. the timing of plant flowering in Spring or leaves falling in Autumn), of many plant species. However, not all species and regions are changing at the s
Ecology and Management of Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: State of the SciencePinyon-juniper woodlands are a major part of western landscapes and are valued for recreational use, cultural resources, watershed protection, and wildlife habitats. These woodlands have been identified by several stakeholders, including natural resource management entities, federal and state agencies, and numerous tribal nations, as important ecosystems that are currently threatened by land treat
Restoration and Ecosystem Recovery Dynamics in Arid and Semiarid LandscapesDryland regions have been degraded by invasive species, wildfire, overgrazing, agricultural conversion, energy development, recreational activity, and urban growth. These disturbances and others are accelerated by one of the fastest growing human populations in the country and a pressing background of decreasing water availability due to drought and elevated temperatures that are projected to...
Plant Responses to Drought and Climate Change in the Southwestern United StatesLand managers face tremendous challenges in the future as drought and climate change alter the abundance, distribution, and interactions of plant species. These challenges will be especially daunting in the southwestern US, which is already experiencing elevated temperatures and prolonged droughts, resulting in reduced soil moisture in an already water-limited environment. These changes will...
Maps of early season invasive grasses and hot spots in the Mojave Ecoregion from 2009-2020Maps of invasive annual grasses were created using multi-season Landsat imagery over a 12 years period (2009-2020), and validated using an extensive network of plot data. Annual maps were used to identify persistent and productive populations of invasive annual grass, called hot spots, across entire Mojave Desert ecoregion. The data provided include a 12 band raster geospatial data file (.tiff) th
Remotely sensed fine fuel data for Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) from 2015 to 2020These data were compiled to estimate fine-fuel abundance and distribution across the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in southern Arizona, USA. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate annual estimates of fine fuel (biomass of herbaceous vegetation) for the refuge and to assess changes in fine fuels through time in response to wildfire and prescribed fire. These data represent
RestoreNet subplot data for 21 sites within major dryland ecoregions throughout the southwestern United States, 2018 - 2021These data were compiled for a networked field-trial restoration experiment (RestoreNet) that spans the southwestern US, including 21 distributed field sites. The objective of our study was to understand the environmental factors and restoration practices (including seed mixes and soil manipulation) that increase plant establishment and survival to ultimate improve restoration outcomes in dryland
Primary production and precipitation data along an elevation gradient in and adjacent to the San Francisco Mountains near Flagstaff, Arizona - 2015-2020These data were compiled to allow further understanding of how aboveground net primary production of different plant functional types in ecosystems along an elevation gradient in the southwestern U.S. respond to extreme changes in warm-season precipitation (drought and water addition) associated with the North American Monsoon. The objectives of the study were to 1) determine how primary productio
Predicted biomass of fine fuel for Altar Valley, Arizona, 2021These data were compiled for the Altar Valley Conservation Alliance and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to identify and quantify the spatial distribution of fine fuels in relation to wildfire management across jurisdictional boundaries. Objective(s) of our study were to map the 2021 annual distribution of the biomass (kg/ha) of fine fuels (grasses, shrubs, and forbs) for the whole of the Altar
Remotely sensed fine-fuel data for Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) from 2015 to 2020These data were compiled to estimate fine-fuel abundance and distribution across the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in southern Arizona, USA. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate annual estimates of fine fuel (biomass of herbaceous vegetation) for the refuge and to assess changes in fine fuels through time in response to wildfire and prescribed fire. These data represent
Plant trait and soil moisture data associated with ontogenetic trait shifts - seedlings display high trait variability during early stages of developmentThese tabular data were compiled to document how key plant trait values change during plant development, particularly seedling stages, and in relation to soil moisture. An objective of our study was to answer three main research questions: (1) Do seedling trait values differ across early to late stages of seedling development and do those trajectories vary among plant species and functional types
Data for Dust deposited on snow cover in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, 2011-2016: Compositional variability bearing on snow-melt effectsLight-absorbing particles in atmospheric dust deposited on snow cover (dust-on-snow, DOS) diminish albedo and accelerate the timing and rate of snow melt. Identification of these particles and their effects are relevant to snow-radiation modeling and water-resource management. Laboratory-measured reflectance of DOS samples from the San Juan Mountains (USA) were compared with DOS mass loading, part
Pinyon and Juniper location data, including a literature review citation list of Pinyon-Juniper systems from 1909 to 2018These data were compiled for a comprehensive review of pinyon-juniper communities including Pinus edulis, Pinus monophylla, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus scopulorum. Compiled are a list of references cataloged by the topic of interest resulting from the literature search. The characterization for each reference includes the focal species, descriptions of the site(s) th
Dataset for plant production responses to climate across water-limited regionsThis dataset was constructed from readily available open source climate and vegetation data, like Landsat. This dataset represents the vegetation and climate conditions for a large number of points across the major deserts of the SW USA. The dataset was constructed in order to use the climate pivot point approach (Munson et al. 2013) at the landscape level. Originally this dataset was much larger
Plant production responses to precipitation differ along an elevation gradient and are enhanced under extremes (Northern Arizona, 1991-2016)This dataset is from a precipitation manipulation experiment conducted at five grassland sites along an elevation gradient near Flagstaff, AZ. The data consist of pre- (1991 - 2010, 2015) and post-experimental (2016) treatment plant production and precipitation measurements. The plant production measurements were taken from satellite and hand-held spectroradiometer, in addition to plot-based harve
Rangeland Ecology Monitoring Data, Utah, 1967-2013These data represent compiled long-term rangeland monitoring data collected from June to September, 1967 to 2013 at 96 permanently marked sites in 15 livestock grazing allotments in near Hanksville, Utah. The Rangeland rangeland monitoring data were collected by a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) field office in south-central Utah. Monitoring consisted of estimating canopy cover of perennial plant
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Plant water-use strategies predict restoration success across degraded drylandsPlant strategies for coping with water limitation are likely to mediate restoration outcomes in degraded dryland ecosystems. Trade-offs in traits related to water acquisition and use can intensify in more arid environments, making their effects on dryland restoration success even more salient. However, isolating the effects of drought responses from those of other environmental factors, as well asAuthorsBradley J. Butterfield, Seth M. Munson, Hannah L. Farrell
Soil surface treatments and precipitation timing determine seedling development across southwestern US restoration sitesRestoration in dryland ecosystems often has poor success due to low and variable water availability, degraded soil conditions, and slow plant community recovery rates. Restoration treatments can mitigate these constraints but, because treatments and subsequent monitoring are typically limited in space and time, our understanding of their applicability across broader environmental gradients remainsAuthorsHannah Lucia Farrell, Seth M. Munson, Bradley J. Butterfield, Michael C. Duniway, Aksasha M Faist, Elise S Gornish, Caroline Havrilla, Loralee Larios, Sasha C. Reed, Helen I Rowe, Katherine M. Laushman, Molly L. McCormick
Do nurse plant effects strengthen over time? Results from 12 years of desert habitat restorationNurse plant effects occur when benefactor perennials facilitate beneficiary plants below their canopies. Two poorly understood aspects of nurse plant ecology include whether facilitation strengthens as nurse plants mature and whether reestablishing perennials through ecological restoration at disturbed sites can trigger facilitation akin to in natural plant communities. We examined these uncertainAuthorsScott R. Abella, Lindsay P. Chiquoine, Mary A. Balogh, Adam J. Taylor, Seth M. Munson
Effectiveness of a decade of treatments to reduce invasive buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)The invasion of nonnative grasses threatens biodiversity and ecosystem function globally through competition with native plant species and increases to wildfire frequency and intensity. Management actions to reduce buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link], an invasive warm-season perennial bunchgrass, are widely implemented, with chemical and mechanical treatments extending over two decades withAuthorsYue M. Li, Seth M. Munson, Ya-Ching Lin, Perry Grissom
The detection and attribution of extreme reductions in vegetation growth across the global land surfaceNegative extreme anomalies in vegetation growth (NEGs) usually indicate severely impaired ecosystem services. These NEGs can result from diverse natural and anthropogenic causes, especially climate extremes (CEs). However, the relationship between NEGs and many types of CEs remains largely unknown at regional and global scales. Here, with satellite-derived vegetation index data and supporting treeAuthorsHuiping Yang, Seth M. Munson, Chris Huntingford, Nuno Carvalhais, Alan K. Knapp, Xiangyi Li, Josep Peñuelas, Jakob Zscheichler, Anping Chen
Divergent climate impacts on C3 versus C4 grasses imply widespread 21st century shifts in grassland functional compositionAimGrasslands cover a third of Earth's landmass and provide critical ecosystem services. Anticipating how perennial C3 (cool-season) and C4 (warm-season) grasses respond to climate change will be key to predicting future composition and functioning of grasslands. Here, we evaluate environmental drivers of C3 and C4 perennial distributions and assess how C3 and C4 grass distributions shift in respoAuthorsCaroline A. Havrilla, John B. Bradford, Charles Yackulic, Seth M. Munson
Grazing and ecosystem service delivery in global drylandsGrazing represents the most extensive use of land worldwide. Yet its impacts on ecosystem services remain uncertain because pervasive interactions between grazing pressure, climate, soil properties, and biodiversity may occur but have never been addressed simultaneously. Using a standardized survey at 98 sites across six continents, we show that interactions between grazing pressure, climate, soilAuthorsFernando T. Maestre, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J. Eldridge, Hugo Saiz, Miguel Berdugo, Beatriz Gozalo, Victoria Ochoa, Emilio Guirado, Miguel García-Gómez, Enrique Valencia, Juan J. Gaitán, Sergio Asensio, Betty J. Mendoza, César Plaza, Paloma Díaz-Martínez, Ana Rey, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Jun-Tao Wang, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C. Rillig, Simone Cesarz, Nico Eisenhauer, Jaime Martínez-Valderrama, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez, Osvaldo E. Sala, Mehdi Abedi, Negar Ahmadian, Concepción L. Alados, Valeria Aramayo, Fateh Amghar, Tulio Arredondo, Rodrigo J. Ahumada, Khadijeh Bahalkeh, Farah Ben Salem, Niels Blaum, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Matthew A. Bowker, Donaldo Bran, Chongfeng Bu, Rafaella Canessa, Andrea P. Castillo-Monroy, Helena Castro, Ignacio Castro, Patricio Castro-Quezada, Roukaya Chibani, Abel A. Conceição, Courtney M. Currier, Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi, Balázs Deák, David A. Donoso, Andrew J. Dougill, Jorge Durán, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Carlos I. Espinosa, Alex Fajardo, Mohammad Farzam, Daniela Ferrante, Anke S. K. Frank, Lauchlan H. Fraser, Laureano A. Gherardi, Aaron C. Greenville, Carlos A. Guerra, Elizabeth Gusmán-Montalvan, Rosa M. Hernández-Hernández, Norbert Hölzel, Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald, Frederic M. Hughes, Oswaldo Jadán-Maza, Florian Jeltsch, Anke Jentsch, Kudzai F. Kaseke, Melanie Köbel, Jessica E. Koopman, Cintia V. Leder, Anja Linstädter, Peter C. le Roux, Xinkai Li, Pierre Liancourt, Jushan Liu, Michelle A. Louw, Gillian Maggs-Kölling, Thulani P. Makhalanyane, Oumarou Malam Issa, Antonio J. Manzaneda, Eugene Marais, Juan P. Mora, Gerardo Moreno, Seth M. Munson, Alice Nunes, Gabriel Oliva, Gastón R. Oñatibia, Guadalupe Peter, Marco O. D. Pivari, Yolanda Pueyo, R. Emiliano Quiroga, Soroor Rahmanian, Sasha C. Reed, Pedro J. Rey, Benoit Richard, Alexandra Rodríguez, Víctor Rolo, Juan G. Rubalcaba, Jan C. Puppert, Ayman Salah, Max A. Schuchardt, Sedona Spann, Ilan Stavi, Colton R. A. Stephens, Anthony M. Swemmer, Alberto L. Teixido, Andrew D. Thomas, Heather L. Throop, Katja Tielbörger, Samantha K. Travers, James Val, Orsolya Valkó, Liesbeth van den Brink, Sergio Velasco Ayuso, Frederike Velbert, Wanyoike Wamiti, Deli Wang, Lixin Wang, Glenda M. Wardle, Laura Yahdjian, Eli Zaady, Yuanming Zhang, Xiaobing Zhou, Brajesh K. Singh, Nicolas Gross
Geologic, geomorphic, and edaphic underpinnings of dryland ecosystems: Colorado Plateau landscapes in a changing worldDrylands represent more than 41% of the global land surface and are at degradation risk due to land use and climate change. Developing strategies to mitigate degradation and restore drylands in the face of these threats requires an understanding of how drylands are shaped by not only soils and climate, but also geology and geomorphology. However, few studies have completed such a comprehensive anaAuthorsMichael C. Duniway, Christopher Benson, Travis W. Nauman, Anna C Knight, John B. Bradford, Seth M. Munson, Dana L. Witwicki, Carolyn Livensperger, Matthew W. Van Scoyoc, Terry T Fisk, David Thoma, Mark E. Miller
Conflict of energies: Spatially modeling mule deer caloric expenditure in response to oil and gas developmentContextWildlife avoid human disturbances, including roads and development. Avoidance and displacement of wildlife into less suitable habitat due to human development can affect their energy expenditures and fitness. The heart rate and oxygen uptake of large mammals varies with both natural aspects of their habitat (terrain, climate, predators, etc.) and anthropogenic influence (noise, light, fragmAuthorsSamuel Norton Chambers, Miguel L. Villarreal, Olivia Jane Marie Duane, Seth M. Munson, Erica Francis Stuber, Gayle L Tyree, Eric K Waller, Michael C. Duniway
Functional composition of plant communities mediates biomass effects on ecosystem service recovery across an experimental dryland restoration networkLand degradation can result in a loss of critical ecosystem services that we often seek to restore through re-establishment of desired plant communities. Trait-based approaches have the potential to target specific ecosystem services based on associations between the functional composition of plant communities and ecosystem properties that serve as indicators of those services.The effect of functiAuthorsKathleen R. Balazs, Seth M. Munson, Bradley J. Butterfield
Primary production responses to extreme changes in North American Monsoon precipitation vary by elevation and plant functional composition through timePrimary production in dryland ecosystems is limited by water availability and projected to be strongly affected by future shifts in seasonal precipitation. Warm-season precipitation derived from the North American Monsoon contributes 40% of annual precipitation to dryland ecosystems in the southwestern U.S. and is projected to become more variable. However, there is large uncertainty on whether thAuthorsSeth M. Munson, John B. Bradford, Bradley J. Butterfield, Jennifer R. Gremer
Supporting the development and use of native plant materials for restoration on the Colorado Plateau (Fiscal Year 2021 Report)A primary focus of the Colorado Plateau Native Plant Program (CPNPP) is to identify and develop appropriate native plant materials (NPMs) for current and future restoration projects. Multiple efforts have characterized the myriad challenges inherent in providing appropriate seed resources to enable effective, widespread restoration and have identified a broad suite of research activities to providAuthorsRobert Massatti, Daniel E. Winkler, Sasha C. Reed, Michael C. Duniway, Seth M. Munson, John B. Bradford
Non-USGS Publications**Bontti, E.E., J.P. DeCant, S.M. Munson, M.A. Gathany, A. Przeszlowska, M.L. Haddix, S. Owens, I.C. Burke, W.J. Parton, and M.E. Harmon. 2009. Litter decomposition in grasslands of Central North America (US Great Plains). Global Change Biology 15: 1356–1363.Munson, S.M. and W.K. Lauenroth. 2009. Plant population and community responses to removal of the dominant species in the shortgrass steppe. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 224–232.Munson, S.M. and W.K. Lauenroth. 2012. Plant community recovery following restoration in semiarid grasslands. Restoration Ecology 20: 656–663.Munson, S.M., W.K. Lauenroth, and I.C. Burke. 2012. Soil carbon and nitrogen recovery on semiarid Conservation Reserve Program lands. Journal of Arid Environments 79: 25–31Munson, S.M. 2013. Plant responses, climate pivot points, and tradeoffs in water-limited ecosystems. Ecosphere 4: 109.Li, J., G.S. Okin, J.E. Herrick, J. Belnap, S.M. Munson, and M.E. Miller. 2010. A simple method to estimate threshold friction velocity of wind erosion in the field. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L10402.
**Disclaimer: The views expressed in Non-USGS publications are those of the author and do not represent the views of the USGS, Department of the Interior, or the U.S. Government.
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