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Climate Change

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Wet Snow Avalanche Research

Wet snow avalanches, including both wet slab and glide avalanches, are dangerous and can be particularly difficult to predict because they are relatively poorly understood compared to dry snow avalanches. They pose significant risk to human life and infrastructure in mountainous areas throughout the world. Wet snow avalanches are caused by weakening in the strength of the snowpack, often triggered...
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Wet Snow Avalanche Research

Wet snow avalanches, including both wet slab and glide avalanches, are dangerous and can be particularly difficult to predict because they are relatively poorly understood compared to dry snow avalanches. They pose significant risk to human life and infrastructure in mountainous areas throughout the world. Wet snow avalanches are caused by weakening in the strength of the snowpack, often triggered...
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Remote Sensing Tools Advance Avalanche Research

The USGS Snow and Avalanche Project (SNAP) uses remotely sensed technologies to understand snowpack changes that influence water storage, recreation, avalanche hazard and acts as a driver of landscape change. Satellites, uninhabited aerial systems (UAS), and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry are some of the tools scientists use to collect high resolution imagery that supports ongoing snow...
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Remote Sensing Tools Advance Avalanche Research

The USGS Snow and Avalanche Project (SNAP) uses remotely sensed technologies to understand snowpack changes that influence water storage, recreation, avalanche hazard and acts as a driver of landscape change. Satellites, uninhabited aerial systems (UAS), and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry are some of the tools scientists use to collect high resolution imagery that supports ongoing snow...
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Examining Snow Avalanche Frequency and Magnitude

Snow avalanches pose substantial risks to human safety, commerce, and infrastructure in mountainous regions across the globe. Avalanches also act as drivers of important ecological change by creating and modifying habitat for flora and fauna. To better understand the dynamic processes of avalanches at multiple scales, the USGS Snow and Avalanche project uses a variety of methods to study avalanche...
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Examining Snow Avalanche Frequency and Magnitude

Snow avalanches pose substantial risks to human safety, commerce, and infrastructure in mountainous regions across the globe. Avalanches also act as drivers of important ecological change by creating and modifying habitat for flora and fauna. To better understand the dynamic processes of avalanches at multiple scales, the USGS Snow and Avalanche project uses a variety of methods to study avalanche...
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Glaciers—Understanding Climate Drivers

Across the globe, glaciers are decreasing in volume and number in response to climate change. Glaciers are important for agriculture, hydropower, recreation, tourism, and biological communities. Loss of glaciers contributes to sea-level rise, creates environmental hazards and can alter aquatic habitats. These are among the cascading effects linked to glacier loss which impact ecosystems and human...
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Glaciers—Understanding Climate Drivers

Across the globe, glaciers are decreasing in volume and number in response to climate change. Glaciers are important for agriculture, hydropower, recreation, tourism, and biological communities. Loss of glaciers contributes to sea-level rise, creates environmental hazards and can alter aquatic habitats. These are among the cascading effects linked to glacier loss which impact ecosystems and human...
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Alpine Vegetation Research

In 2003, USGS scientists joined the GLobal Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) network in establishing vegetation plots at four alpine summits in Glacier National Park, MT, USA. Vegetation and temperature data collected at the GLORIA sites are used to understand trends in species diversity, composition, abundance, and temperature from climate sensitive alpine ecosystems...
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Alpine Vegetation Research

In 2003, USGS scientists joined the GLobal Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) network in establishing vegetation plots at four alpine summits in Glacier National Park, MT, USA. Vegetation and temperature data collected at the GLORIA sites are used to understand trends in species diversity, composition, abundance, and temperature from climate sensitive alpine ecosystems...
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Grinnell Glacier 1938-2019

USGS employees have taken photos of Grinnell Glacier from this vantage point many times since beginning the Repeat Photography Project in 1997. Each successive photo has shown the glacier to be smaller resulting in the growth of Upper Grinnell Lake.Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission. Images with...
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Grinnell Glacier 1938-2019

USGS employees have taken photos of Grinnell Glacier from this vantage point many times since beginning the Repeat Photography Project in 1997. Each successive photo has shown the glacier to be smaller resulting in the growth of Upper Grinnell Lake.Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission. Images with...
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Jackson Glacier 1941-2019

This vantage point of Jackson Glacier is familiar to many visitors who stop along Going to the Sun Road to view the glacier. These images are particularly descriptive of the change in the glacier's size because both images show the glacier without much seasonal snow, allowing for a more accurate assessment of the glacier's true size.Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this...
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Jackson Glacier 1941-2019

This vantage point of Jackson Glacier is familiar to many visitors who stop along Going to the Sun Road to view the glacier. These images are particularly descriptive of the change in the glacier's size because both images show the glacier without much seasonal snow, allowing for a more accurate assessment of the glacier's true size.Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this...
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Kintla Glacier 1901-2019

In the 118 years between photos, Kintla Glacier has receded into much smaller, distinct patches. Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission. Images with restrictions are noted below the downloadable image.Please respect the photographer: When using these photographs, please credit the photographer and...
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Kintla Glacier 1901-2019

In the 118 years between photos, Kintla Glacier has receded into much smaller, distinct patches. Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission. Images with restrictions are noted below the downloadable image.Please respect the photographer: When using these photographs, please credit the photographer and...
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Grinnell Glacier from Mount Gould, 1938 - 1981 - 1998 - 2015

Oblique view of Grinnell Glacier taken from the summit of Mount Gould, Glacier National Park. The relative sensitivity of glaciers to climate change is illustrated by the dramatic recession of Grinnell Glacier while surrounding vegetation patterns remain stable. Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be reproduced without...
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Grinnell Glacier from Mount Gould, 1938 - 1981 - 1998 - 2015

Oblique view of Grinnell Glacier taken from the summit of Mount Gould, Glacier National Park. The relative sensitivity of glaciers to climate change is illustrated by the dramatic recession of Grinnell Glacier while surrounding vegetation patterns remain stable. Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be reproduced without...
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Grinnell Ridge, Gem & Salamander Glaciers 1910 - 2017

In 1910, Morton Elrod documented how Grinnell Glacier’s mass filled the basin and how the glacier was then joined with the ice apron we now call the Salamander (right). Close inspection of Gem Glacier (top-center) reveals a loss of thickness / volume over the past 107 years as well. Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be...
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Grinnell Ridge, Gem & Salamander Glaciers 1910 - 2017

In 1910, Morton Elrod documented how Grinnell Glacier’s mass filled the basin and how the glacier was then joined with the ice apron we now call the Salamander (right). Close inspection of Gem Glacier (top-center) reveals a loss of thickness / volume over the past 107 years as well. Image UseMost of the repeat photography images available on this website are in the public domain and may be...
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Multi-century perspectives on current and future streamflow in the Missouri River Basin

The Missouri River system is the life-blood of the American Midwest providing water resources that drive agriculture, industry, hydroelectric power generation, and ecosystems. However, the Missouri River Basin (MRB) (Figure 1) is the only major river in the western U.S. for which hydrologic reconstructions from tree rings have not been generated in any systematic way. This knowledge gap is...
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Multi-century perspectives on current and future streamflow in the Missouri River Basin

The Missouri River system is the life-blood of the American Midwest providing water resources that drive agriculture, industry, hydroelectric power generation, and ecosystems. However, the Missouri River Basin (MRB) (Figure 1) is the only major river in the western U.S. for which hydrologic reconstructions from tree rings have not been generated in any systematic way. This knowledge gap is...
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Grinnell Glacier 1938 - 2016

Notice the man standing on the glacier in the center of the historic photograph. The figure lends a frame of reference to the photo pair, allowing the viewer to more easily interpret the depth of ice and the loss of volume when compared to the 2016 image.
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Grinnell Glacier 1938 - 2016

Notice the man standing on the glacier in the center of the historic photograph. The figure lends a frame of reference to the photo pair, allowing the viewer to more easily interpret the depth of ice and the loss of volume when compared to the 2016 image.
Learn More