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Hyperspectral remote sensing of white mica: A review of imaging and point-based spectrometer studies for mineral resources, with spectrometer design considerations

Over the past ~30 years, hyperspectral remote sensing of chemical variations in white mica have proven to be useful for ore deposit studies in a range of deposit types. To better understand mineral deposits and to guide spectrometer design, this contribution reviews relevant papers from the fields of remote sensing, spectroscopy, and geology that have utilized spectral changes caused by chemical v

Multiscale hyperspectral imaging of hydrothermal alteration in Yellowstone National Park, USA

Imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imaging) data have mainly been used to map surface materials covering relatively small areas from airborne sensors over the past 20+ years. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated hyperspectral, geophysical and geochemical studies of Yellowstone National Park hydrothermal systems project, we have collected multiscale imaging spectrometer data including

Quantifying uncertainty for remote spectroscopy of surface composition

Remote surface measurements by imaging spectrometers play an important role in planetary and Earth science. To make these measurements, investigators calibrate instrument data to absolute units, invert physical models to estimate atmospheric effects, and then determine surface properties from the spectral reflectance. This study quantifies the uncertainty in this process. Global missions demand pr

Dust deposited on snow cover in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, 2011-2016: Compositional variability bearing on snow-melt effects

Light-absorbing particles in atmospheric dust deposited on snow cover (dust-on-snow, DOS) diminish albedo and accelerate the timing and rate of snow melt. Identification of these particles and their effects are relevant to snow-radiation modeling and thus water-resource management. Laboratory-measured reflectance of DOS samples from the San Juan Mountains (USA) were compared with DOS mass loading,

Classification of oil spill by thicknesses using multiple remote sensors

Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an operational tool for monitoring and assessment of oil spills. Satellite SAR has primarily been used to detect the presence/absence of oil, yet its ability to discriminate oil emulsions within a detected oil slick has not been fully exploited. Additionally, one of the challenges in the past has been the ability to deliver strategic information derived

Comparison of methods for modeling fractional cover using simulated satellite hyperspectral imager spectra

Remotely sensed data can be used to model the fractional cover of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and soil in natural and agricultural ecosystems. NPV and soil cover are difficult to estimate accurately since absorption by lignin, cellulose, and other organic molecules cannot be resolved by broadband multispectral data. A new generation of satellite hyperspectral imager

Imaging spectroscopy for the detection, assessment and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic hazards

Natural and anthropogenic hazards have the potential to impact all aspects of society including its economy and the environment. Diagnostic data to inform decision-making are critical for hazard management whether for emergency response, routine monitoring or assessments of potential risks. Imaging spectroscopy (IS) has unique contributions to make via the ability to provide some key quantitative

Isotopic ratios of Saturn's rings and satellites: Implications for the origin of water and Phoebe

Isotopic ratios have long been used to learn about physical processes acting over a wide range of geological environments, and in constraining the origin and/or evolution of planetary bodies. We report the spectroscopic detection of deuterium in Saturn's rings and satellites, and use these measurements to determine the (D/H) ratios in their near-surface regions. Saturn's moons, Phoebe and Iapetus,

Characteristics of tropical tree species in hyperspectral and multispectral data

Remote sensing has been hailed as a promising technology to provide spatially explicit information on tree species distribution. Such information is of high value for ecologists and forest managers, particularly in tropical environments in which it is acquired by costly field inventories performed at the plot level (∼1 ha). Over the last decade, hyperspectral sensors, usually on board airborne pla

Multiscale hyperspectral imaging of the Orange Hill Porphyry Copper Deposit, Alaska, USA, with laboratory-, field-, and aircraft-based imaging spectrometers

In the past decade, use of hyperspectral imaging (imaging spectroscopy) for mineral exploration and mining operations has been increasing at different spatial scales. In this paper, we focus on recent trends in applying imaging spectrometer data to: 1) airborne imaging of high latitude deposits, 2) field-based imaging of outcrops, and 3) laboratory-level imaging of geologic samples. Comparing mine

Spatial spectroscopic models for remote exploration

Ancient hydrothermal systems are a high-priority target for a future Mars sample return mission because they contain energy sources for microbes and can preserve organic materials (Farmer, 2000; MEPAG Next Decade Science Analysis Group, 2008; McLennan et al.,2012; Michalski et al.,2017). Characterizing these large, heterogeneous systems with a remote explorer is difficult due to communications ban

Characterizing the source of potentially asbestos-bearing commercial vermiculite insulation using in situ IR spectroscopy

Commercially produced vermiculite insulation from Libby, Montana, contains trace levels of asbestiform amphibole, which is known to cause asbestos-related diseases. When vermiculite insulation is found in a building, evaluation for its potential asbestos content traditionally involves collecting a sample from an attic or wall and submitting it for time-consuming analyses at an off-site laboratory.