Sasha C Reed, Ph.D.

Dr. Sasha Reed is an ecologist focused on understanding how our planet's ecosystems work and what factors determine the services they provide. The study sites and methods Sasha uses are diverse, and with each of her projects she strives to provide scientific information that helps our nation address challenges, solve problems, and maximize opportunities.


Sasha seeks to provide useful information for land managers, policy-makers, and the general public. Sasha uses both basic and applied scientific approaches to improve our understanding of the fundamental controls over ecosystems, to determine how these systems respond to change, and to explore solutions for addressing relevant problems. Sasha works closely with a range of collaborators - including federal agency partners (BLM, NPS, DOE, DoD, BIA, USFS, USFWS) - in designing research studies, conducting information and technology transfer, and performing outreach activities. Some of her primary research interests include understanding how drought and increasing temperatures affect ecosystems, exploring a diversity of energy options for meeting national demand, assessing the consequences of exotic plant invasion and ways to combat them, and establishing novel management options for increased effectiveness and efficiency in restoration and reclamation. Sasha attempts to conduct research that is innovative, collaborative, and useful. 
Some of Sasha's current projects are:


Ph.D. in Biogeochemistry, the University of Colorado at Boulder (August 2002-May 2008)

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Institute of Arctic & Alpine Research (INSTAAR), Boulder, CO.

Co-advised by Alan R. Townsend and Steve K. Schmidt.


B.A. in Organic ChemistryColgate University (August 1993-May 1997)

Department of Chemistry, Hamilton, NY. Graduated magna cum laude.

Advised by David A. Modarelli.


Professional Experience

Research Ecologist, USGS, Moab, UT, May 2008-present.

Research Ecologist, USGS-SCEP Program, Moab, UT, 2005-2007 summers only.

Fellow, NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. Awarded April 2003; deferred until September 2005-May 2008.

Fellow, NSF IGERT Fellowship, Carbon Climate and Society Initiative (CCSI). August 2003-August 2005.


Honors and Fellowships

Elected Member-At-Large, Ecological Society of America (ESA). Elected by the members of the ESA to help lead the Society. August 2020-August 2022.

Ecological Society of America (ESA) Early Career Fellow. ESA nominates and selects early career fellows for making and showing promise of continuing to make outstanding contributions to the ecological sciences. March 2016.

Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). Highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on scientists and engineers in the early stages of their research careers. October 2011.

Star Awardreceived for outstanding work with the Department of the Interior. October 2010, May 2000.

Graduate Student Research and Creative Works Award, University of Colorado at Boulder. One of two of the University’s graduating Ph.D. students whose dissertation was selected by faculty members from all disciplines as representing outstanding research and creative work. May 2008.

USGS Student Career Experience Program (SCEP) Fellowship. Supported in creating a research project to model how soil gas fluxes in dryland ecosystems will vary under altered climate regimes. June-August of 2006 & 2007.

Student Policy Award, Ecological Society of America (ESA). Graduate student chosen and funded by ESA to meet with members of Congress regarding national scientific funding. September 2006.

AAAS Program for Excellence in Science. Nominated by the University of Colorado Vice Chancellor of Research to participate in a program rewarding praiseworthy graduate students working in the life sciences. August 2006.

Lawrence Award, awarded to one student annually for superior performance in organic chemistry. April 1996.

Phi Ea Sigma University Honor Society Awarded Membership, chosen for academic excellence. April 1994-May 1997.

Phi Eta Sigma Aid Committee Selected Board Member, elected for superior research to a board that selected student grant applications for funding. September 1995-May 1997.

Barry Goldwater Award Nominee, nationally nominated by Colgate University for academic distinction. November 1994.


PUBLICATIONS (for a most current list, please see Sasha's google scholar page).

If you can't access any of the papers below using the links, please email Sasha and she would be delighed to send you a copy.

*=USGS technician author, ¢=student author, ¥=post-doc author


Delgado-Baquerizo, M, PB Reich, RD Bardgett, DJ Eldridge, H Lambers, DA Wardle, SC Reed, C Plaza, GK Png, S Neuhauser, A Asefaw Berhe, SC Hart, H-W Hu, J-Z He, F Bastida, S Abades, FD Alfaro, NA Cutler, A Gallardo, L García-Velázquez, PE Hayes, Z-Y Hseu, CA Pérez, F Santos, C Siebe, P Trivedi, BW Sullivan, L Weber-Grullon, MA Williams, N Fierer (2020) The influence of soil age on ecosystem structure and function across biomes. Nature Communications 11: 4721.

Lü, X-T, S-L Hou, SC Reed, J-X Yin, Y-Y Hu, H-W Wei, Z-W Zhang, G-J Yang, Z-Y Liu, X-G Han (2020) Nitrogen enrichment reduces nitrogen and phosphorus resorption through changes to species resorption and plant community composition. Ecosystems.

Kennard, DK, D Matlaga, J Sharpe, C King, ¢A Alonso‐Rodríguez, SC Reed, MA Cavaleri, TE Wood. (2020) Tropical understory herbaceous community responds more strongly to hurricane disturbance than to experimental warming. Ecology and Evolution 10: 8906-8915.​​​​​​​

Tucker, C, A Antoninka, N Day, B Poff, SC Reed (2020) Biological soil crust salvage for dryland restoration: an opportunity for natural resource restoration. Restoration Ecology 28: S150-S159.​​​​​​​

Antoninka, A, MA Bowker, NN Barger, J Belnap, ¢A Giraldo‐Silva, SC Reed, F Garcia‐Pichel, MC Duniway (2020) Addressing barriers to improve biocrust colonization and establishment in dryland restoration. Restoration Ecology 28: S150-S159.​​​​​​​

Eldridge, DJ, SC Reed, SK Travers, MA Bowker, FT Maestre, J Ding, ¥C Havrilla, E Rodriguez‐Caballero, N Barger, B Weber, A Antoninka, J Belnap, B Chaudhary, A Faist, S Ferrenberg, E Huber‐Sannwald, O Malam Issa, Y Zhao (2020) The pervasive and multifaceted influence of biocrusts on water in the world's drylands. Global Change Biology 26: 6003-6014.​​​​​​​

¥Winkler, DE, J Belnap, MC Duniway, D Hoover, SC Reed, H Yokum, R Gill. (2020) Seasonal and individual event-responsiveness are key determinants of carbon exchange across plant functional types. Oecologia 193: 811-825.​​​​​​​

¥Reis, CRG, FS Pacheco, SC Reed, G Tejada, GB Nardoto, MC Forti, JP Ometto (2020) Biological nitrogen fixation across major biomes in Latin America: Patterns and global change effects. Science of The Total Environment: 746: 140998.​​​​​​​

¢Chuckran, PF, *R Reibold, HL Throop, SC Reed (2020) Multiple mechanisms determine the effect of warming on plant litter decomposition in a dryland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 145: 107799.​​​​​​​

Bachelot, B, ¢AM Alonso‐Rodríguez, L Aldrich‐Wolfe, MA Cavaleri, SC Reed, TE Wood (2020) Altered climate leads to positive density‐dependent feedbacks in a tropical wet forest. Global Change Biology 26: 3417-3428.​​​​​​​

Reed, SC, *R Reibold, MA Cavaleri, AM Alonso-Rodríguez, *ME Berberich, Wood, TE (2020) Soil biogeochemical responses of a tropical forest to warming and hurricane disturbance. Advances in Ecological Research 62: 225-252.

Delgado-Baquerizo, M, PB Reich, C Trivedi, DJ Eldridge, S Abades, FD Alfaro, F Bastida, AA Berhe, NA Cutler, A Gallardo, L García-Velázquez, SC Hart, PE Hayes, J-Z He, Z-Y Hseu, H-W Hu, M Kirchmair, S Neuhauser, CA Pérez, SC Reed, F Santos, BW Sullivan, P Trivedi, J-T Wang, L Weber-Grullon, MA Williams, BK Singh (2020). Multiple elements of soil biodiversity drive ecosystem functions across biomes. Nature Ecology and Evolution 4: 210-220.

¢Carter, KR, TE Wood, SC Reed, EC Schwartz, MB Reinsel, X Yang, M Cavaleri (2020) Photosynthetic and respiratory acclimation of understory shrubs in response to in situ experimental warming of a wet tropical forest. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3: 114.  

Hoover, DL, B Bestelmeyer, NB Grimm, TE Huxman, SC Reed, O Sala, TR Seastedt, H Wilmer, S Ferrenberg (2020) Traversing the Wasteland: A Framework for Assessing Ecological Threats to Drylands. BioScience 70: 35-47. .

Faist AM, AJ Antoninka, J Belnap, MA Bowker, MC Duniway, F Garcia‐Pichel, C Nelson, SC Reed, ¢A Giraldo‐Silva, S Velasco‐Ayuso, NN Barger (2020) Inoculum and habitat amelioration efforts in biological soil crust recovery vary by desert and soil texture. Restoration Ecology 28: S96-S105.


Howell, A, C Tucker, EE Grote, M Veste, J Belnap, G Kast, B Weber, SC Reed (2019) Manufacturing Simple and Inexpensive Soil Surface Temperature and Gravimetric Water Content Sensors. Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE: 154: e60308.

Smith, WK, MP Dannenberg, ¥D Yan, S Herrmann, ML Barnes, GA Barron-Gafford, JA Biederman, S Ferrenberg, AM Fox, A Hudson, JF Knowles, M MacBean, DJP Moore, PL Nagler, SC Reed, WA Rutherford, RL Scott, X Wang, J Yang (2019) Remote sensing of dryland ecosystem structure and function: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. Remote Sensing of Environment 233: 111401.

¥Winkler, DE, C Grossiord, J Belnap, *A Howell, S Ferrenberg, *H Smith, Reed, SC (In Press) Earlier plant growth helps compensate for reduced carbon fixation after 13 years of warming. Functonal Ecology 33: 2071-2080. Read about Daniel Winkler's nomination for the Haldane Prize for this exciting paper HERE!

¥Winkler, DE, J Belnap, D Hoover, SC Reed, MC Duniway (2019) Shrub persistence and increased grass mortality in response to drought in dryland systems. Global Change Biology 25: 3121-3135.

¢Reis, CR, SC Reed, RS Oliveira, GB Nardoto (2019) Isotopic Evidence that Nitrogen Enrichment Intensifies Nitrogen Losses to the Atmosphere from Subtropical Mangroves. Ecosystems 22: 1126-1144.

Bastida, F, C García, N Fierer, DJ Eldridge, MA Bowker, S Abades, FD Alfaro, AA Berhe, NA Cutler, A Gallardo, L García-Velázquez, SC Hart, PE Hayes, T Hernández, Z-Y Hseu, N Jehmlich, M Kirchmair, H Lambers, S Neuhauser, VM Peña-Ramírez, CA Pérez, SC Reed, F Santos, C Siebe, BW Sullivan, P Trivedi, A Vera, MA Williams, JL Moreno, M Delgado-Baquerizo (In Press) Global ecological predictors of the soil priming effect. Nature Communications 10: 3481.​​​​​​​

¢Young, KE, MA Bowker, SC Reed, MC Duniway, J Belnap (2019) Temporal and abiotic fluctuations may be preventing successful rehabilitation of soil‐stabilizing biocrust communities. Ecological Applications, p.e01908.

¢Haight, JD, SC Reed, AM Faist (2019) Seed bank community and soil texture relationships in a cold desert. Journal of Arid Environments 164: 46-52.

¥Delgado-Baquerizo, M, RD Bardgett, PM Vitousek, FT Maestre, MA Williams, DJ Eldridge, H Lambers, H, S Neuhauser, A Gallardo, L García-Velázquez, OE Sala, SR Abades, FD Alfaro, AA Berhe, MA Bowker, CM Currier, NA Cutler, SC Hart, PE Hayes, Z-Y Hseu, M Kirchmair, VM Peña-Ramírez, CA Pérez, SC Reed, F Santos, C Siebe, BW Sullivan, L Weber-Grullon, N Fierer (2019) Changes in belowground biodiversity during ecosystem development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 201818400.

Wood, TE, G González, WL Silver, SC Reed, MA Cavaleri (2019) On the Shoulders of Giants: Continuing the Legacy of Large-Scale Ecosystem Manipulation Experiments in Puerto Rico. Forests 10: 210.

¥Tucker, CL, ¥S Ferrenberg, SC Reed (2019) Climatic Sensitivity of Dryland Soil CO2 Fluxes Differs Dramatically with Biological Soil Crust Successional State. Ecosystems 22: 15-32.

¥Albright, MB, RC Mueller, LV Gallegos-Graves, J Belnap, SC Reed, C Kuske (2019) Interactions of Microhabitat and Time Control Grassland Bacterial and Fungal Composition. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7: 367.

Reed, SC, M Delgado-Baquerizo, S Ferrenberg (2019) Biocrust science and global change. New Phytologist 223: 1047-1051.

Wood, TE, MA Cavaleri, CP Giardina, S Khan, JE Mohan, AT Nottingham, SC Reed, M Slot (2019) Soil warming effects on tropical forests with highly weathered soils. In Ecosystem Consequences of Soil Warming (pp. 385-439). Academic Press.


Vicca, S, BD Stocker, SC Reed, WR Wieder, M Bahn, PA Fay, IA Janssens, H Lambers, J Penuelas, S Piao, KT Rebel (2018) Using research networks to create the comprehensive datasets needed to assess nutrient availability as a key determinant of terrestrial carbon cycling. Environmental Research Letters 13: 125006.

Hristov, AN, JMF Johnson, CW Rice, ME Brown, RT Conant, SJ Del Grosso, NP Curwick, CA Rotz, UM Sainju RH Skinner, TO West, BRJ Runkle H Janzen, SC Reed, N Cavallaro, G Shrestha (2018) Agriculture. In Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2). US Global Change Research Program.

Birdsey, R, MA Mayes, P Romero-Lankao, RG Najjar, SC Reed, N Cavallaro, G Shrestha, DJ Hayes, L Lorenzoni, A Marsh, K Tedesco (2018) Executive summary. In Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2): A Sustained Assessment Report (pp. 21-40). US Global Change Research Program.

Cavallaro, N, G Shrestha, R Birdsey, MA Mayes, RG Najjar, SC Reed, P Romero-Lankao, Z Zhu (Eds). Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2): A Sustained Assessment Report. US Global Change Research Program. doi: 10.7930/SOCCR2.2018

¥Winkler, D, DM Backer, et al. SC Reed (2018) Beyond traditional ecological restoration on the Colorado Plateau. Restoration Ecology 26: 1055-1060.

Grossiord, C, A Gessler, SC Reed, I Borrego, AD Collins, LT Dickman, M Ryan, L Schönbeck, S Sevanto, A Vilagrosa, NG McDowell (2018) Reductions in tree performance during hotter droughts are mitigated by shifts in nitrogen cycling. Plant, Cell & Environment.

Wertin, TM, ¢K Young, SC Reed (2018) Spatially explicit patterns in a dryland's soil respiration and relationships with climate, whole plant photosynthesis and soil fertility. Oikos 127: 1280-1290.

Bowker, MA, SC Reed, FT Maestre, DJ Eldridge (2018) Biocrusts: the living skin of the Earth. Plant and Soil 429: 1-7.

*Torres-Cruz, T, *A Howell, *R Reibold, T McHugh, ¢M Eikoff, SC Reed, (2018) Species-specific nitrogenase activity in lichen-dominated biological soil crusts from the Colorado Plateau, USA. Plant and Soil 429: 113-125.

¥Ferrenberg, S, AM Faist, *A Howell, SC Reed, (2018) Biocrusts enhance soil fertility and Bromus tectorum growth, and interact with warming to influence germination. Plant and Soil. 429: 77-90.

Antoninka, A, MA Bowker, *P Chuckran, NN Barger, SC Reed, J Belnap (2017) Maximizing establishment and survivorship of field-collected and greenhouse-cultivated biocrusts in a semi-cold desert. Plant and Soil 429: 213-225.

Darrouzet-Nardi, A, SC Reed, EE Grote, J Belnap (2018) Patterns of longer-term climate change effects on CO2 efflux from biocrusted soils differ from those observed in the short-term. Biogeosciences 15: 4561-4573.

Munson, SM, SC Reed, J Penuelas, NG McDowell, OE Sala (2018) Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions. New Phytologist 218: 1315-1317.

Kimball, BA, *AM Alonso-Rodriguez, MA Cavaleri, SC Reed, G Gonzalez, TE Wood (2018) Infrared heater system for warming tropical forest understory plants and soils. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8: 1932-1944.

¥Tucker, C, ¥D Yan, ¥M Dannenberg, SC Reed, W Smith. Science at the frontier: multimethod research to evaluate ecosystem change across multiple scales. New Phytologist 218: 118-1320.

¢Mau, AC, SC Reed, TE Wood, MA Cavaleri (2018) Temperate and tropical forest canopies are already functioning beyond their thermal thresholds for photosynthesis. Forests 9, 47.

¥Feng, X, M Uriarte, G Gonzalez, SC Reed, J Thompson, JK Zimmerman, L Murphy (2018) Improving predictions of tropical forest response to climate change through integration of field studies and ecosystem modeling. Global Change Biology 24: 213-232.


¥Ferrenberg, S, SC Reed (2017) Biocrust ecology: unifying micro- and macro-scales to confront global change. New Phytologist 216: 643-646.

Clark, D, ¥S Asao, R Fisher, SC Reed, PB Reich, MG Ryan, TE Wood, X Yang (2017) Field data to benchmark the carbon-cycle models for tropical forests. Biogeosciences 14: 4663.

¥Tucker, CL, ¥TA McHugh, *A Howell, R Gill, B Weber, J Belnap, E Grote, SC Reed (2017) The concurrent use of novel soil surface microclimate measurements to evaluate CO2 pulses in biocrusted interspaces in a cool desert ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 135: 239-249.

¢Schwabedissen, SG, KA Lohse, SC Reed, KA Aho, TS Magnuson (2017) Nitrogenase activity by biological soil crusts in cold sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 134: 57-76.

¢Whitney, KM, ER Vivoni, MC Duniway, JB Bradford, SC Reed, J Belnap (2017) Ecohydrological role of biological soil crusts across a gradient in levels of development. Ecohydrology 10: e1875.

Lu, XT, SC Reed, SL Hou, YY Hu, HW Wei, FM Lu, Q Cui, XG Han (2017) Temporal variability of foliar nutrients: responses to nitrogen deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe. Biogeochemistry 133: 295-305.

Jenni KE, MB Goldhaber, JL Betancourt, JS Baron, RS Bristol, M Cantrill, PE Exter, MJ Focazio, JW Haines, LE Hay, L Hsu, VF Labson, KD Lafferty, KA Ludwig, PC Milly, TL Morelli, SA Morman, NT Nassar, TR Newman, AC Ostroff, JS Read, SC Reed, CD Shapiro, RA Smith, WE Sanford, TL Sohl, EG Stets, AJ Terando, DE Tillitt, MA Tischler, PL Toccalino, DJ Wald, MP Waldrop, A Wein, JF Weltzin, CE Zimmerman (2017) Grand Challenges for Integrated USGS Science – A workshop Reprot. USGS Open File Report.

¢Chung, YA, RL Sinsabaugh, CK Kuske, SC Reed, JA Rudgers (2017). Spatial variation in edaphic characteristics is a stronger control than nitrogen inputs in regulating soil microbial effects on a desert grass. Journal of Arid Environments 142: 59-65.

*Rutherford, WA, TH Painter, ¥S Ferrenberg, J Belnap, GS Okin, *C Flagg, SC Reed (2017). Albedo feedbacks to future climate via climate change impacts on dryland biocrusts. Scientific Reports 7.

Steven, B, TA McHugh, SC Reed (2017). The response of arid soils to climate change. In: (Ed: Steven, B) Life in Extreme Environments: The Biology of Arid Soils.

¥Ferrenberg, S, ¥C Tucker, SC Reed (2017). Biological soil crusts: diminutive communities of potential global importance. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15: 160-167.

¥McHugh, T, EM Morrissey, ¥R Mueller, L Gallegos-Graves, C Kuske, SC Reed (2017). Bacterial, fungal, and plant communities exhibit no biomass or compositional response to two years of simulated nitrogen deposition in a semiarid grassland.  Environmental Microbiology 19: 1600-1611.

*Young, K, SC Reed (2017) Spectrally monitoring the response of biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis to altered precipitation regimes. Scientific Reports 7.

Reed, SC (2017). Disentangling the complexities of how legumes and their symbionts regulate plant nitrogen access and storage. New Phytologist 213: 478-480.

¥Wertin, TM, J Belnap, SC Reed (2017). Experimental warming in a dryland community reduced plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux although the relationship between the fluxes remained unchanged. Functional Ecology 2: 297-305.


Reed, SC, TE Wood (2016). Soil phosphorus cycling in tropical soils: an Ultisol and Oxisol perspective. In: Lal, R., B.A. Stewart. Soil Phosphorus. Advances in Soil Science. Taylor and Francis Books.

¥Sherry, RA, PB Shafroth, J Belnap, S Ostoja, SC Reed (2016). Germination and growth of native and invasive plants on soil associated with biological control of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Invasive Plant Science and Management 9: 290-307.

¥Tucker CL, SC Reed (2016). Low soil moisture during hot periods drives apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dryland ecosystem: a multi-model comparison. Biogeochemistry 128: 155-169.

¥Stocker, BD, IC Prentice, SE Cornell, T Davies-Barnard, AC Finzi, O Franklin, I Janssens, T Larmola, S Manzoni, T Nasholm, JA Raven, KT Rebel, SC Reed, S Vicca A Wiltshire, S Zaehle (2016). Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited." New Phytologist 210: 1165-1168.

¥Antoninka, A, MA Bowker, SC Reed, ¢K Doherty. (2016). Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function. Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12311.

Reed, SC, FT Maestre, R Ochoa-Hueso, CR Kuske, ¥A Darrouzet-Nardi, M Oliver, B Darby, LG Sancho, RL Sinsabaugh, J Belnap (2016) Biocrusts in the Context of Global Change. In: Belnap, J, B Webber, B Budel. Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management.

Metcalf, JL, ZZ Xu, S Weiss, S Lax, W Van Treuren, ER Hyde, SJ Song, A Amir, P Larsen, N Sangwan, D Haarmann, GC Humphrey, G Ackermann, LR Thompson, C Lauber, A Bibat, C Nicholas, MJ Gebert, JF Petrosino, SC Reed, JA Gilbert, AM Lynne, SR Bucheli, DO Carter, R Knight. (2016). Microbial community assembly and metabolic function during mammalian corpse decomposition. Science 351: 158-162.

Lü, XT, SC Reed, Q Yu, XG Han (2016) Nutrient resorption helps drive intra-specific coupling of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus under nutrient-enriched conditions. Plant and Soil: 1-10: doi:10. 1007/ s11104-015-2642-y.

¥Smith, WK, SC Reed, CC Cleveland, AP Ballantyne, WRL Anderegg, WR Wieder, YY Liu, SW Running. (2016). Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization. Nature Climate Change doi:10.1038/nclimate2879.


¥Darrouzet-Nardi, A, SC Reed, EE Grote, J Belnap. (2015). Observations of net soil exchange of CO2 in a dryland show experimental warming increases carbon losses in biocrust soils. Biogeochemistry 126: 363-378.

¥Steven, B, CR Kuske, SC Reed, J Belnap (2015) Climate change and physical disturbance result in distinct biological soil crust communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 81: 7448-7459.

Reed, SC, X Yang, PE Thornton (2015) Incorporating phosphorus cycling in global modeling efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor. New Phytologist. 208: 324-329.

¥Ferrenberg, S, SC Reed, J, Belnap (2015) Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112: 12116-12121.

Cavaleri, MA, SC Reed, ¥WK Smith, TE Wood (2015) Urgent need for warming experiments in tropical forests. Global Change Biology. 21: 2111-2121.

¥Wertin, T, SC Reed, J Belnap (2015). C3 and C4 plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Oecologia 177: 997-1013.

¥McHugh, T, EM Morrissey, SC Reed, BA Hungate, E Schwartz (2015) Water from air: an overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions. Scientific Reports 5: 13767.


Hiltbrünner, E, R Aerts, T Bühlmann, K Huss-Danell, B Magnusson, DD Myrold, SC Reed, BD Sigurdsson, C Körner (2014) Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants into cold biomes. Oecologia 176: 11-24.

¥Sullivan, BW, ¥S Alvarez-Clare, ¢SC Castle, S Porder, SC Reed, ¥L Schreeg, AR Townsend, CC Cleveland (2014) Assessing nutrient limitation in complex forested ecosystems: alternatives to large-scale fertilization experiments. Ecology 95: 668-681.

Cleveland, CC, SC Reed, ¢AB Keller, DR Nemergut, ¢SP O’Neill, R Ostertag, PM Vitousek (2014) Litter quality versus soil microbial community controls over decomposition: a quantitative analysis. Oecologia 110:12733-12737.

¥Sullivan, BW, ¥WK Smith, AR Townsend, ¢MK Nasto, SC Reed, RL Chazdon, CC Cleveland (2014) Spatially robust estimates of biological nitrogen fixation imply substantial human alteration of the tropical nitrogen cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi:10.1073/pnas.1320646111.

¥Smith, WK, CC Cleveland, SC Reed, SW Running (2014) Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity. Geophysical Research Letters 10.1002/2013GL058857.


Cleveland, CC, BZ Houlton, WK Smith, ¢AR Marklein, SC Reed, SJ Del Grosso, SW Running (2013) Patterns of new versus recycled primary production in the terrestrial biosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:12733-12737.

Reed, SC, AR Townsend, CC Cleveland (2013) Relationships between phosphorus, molybdenum and free-living nitrogen fixation in tropical rain forests: Results from observational and experimental analyses. Biogeochemistry: Synthesis & Emerging Ideas Section 114:1-13.

Vitousek, PM, DNL Menge, SC Reed, CC Cleveland (2013) Biological nitrogen fixation: rates, patterns, and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 368: 20130119.

Lu, X-T, SC Reed, Q Yu, NP He, ZW Wang, XG Han (2013) Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semi-arid grassland. Global Change Biology 19:2775-2784.

¢Keville, MP, SC Reed, CC Cleveland (2013) Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation Whitebark Pine ecosystem. PLoS One 8: e65004. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065004.

¥Zelikova, TJ, R Hufbauer, SC Reed, ¥T Wertin, C Fetting, J Belnap. (2013) Eco-evolutionary responses of Bromus tectorum to climate change: Implications for biological invasions. Ecology & Evolution 3:1374-1387.

¢Keller, AB, SC Reed, AR Townsend, CC Cleveland (2013) Effects of canopy tree species on belowground biogeochemistry in a lowland wet tropical forest. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 58: 61-69.


¥Wickings, K, AS Grandy, SC Reed, CC Cleveland (2012) The origin of litter chemical complexity during decomposition. Ecology Letters 15: 1180-1188.

Reed, SC, AR Townsend, CC Cleveland, EA Davidson (2012). Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales. New Phytologist 196: 173-180.

Reed, SC, ¢KK Coe, JP Sparks, DC Housman, ¥TJ Zelikova, J Belnap (2012) Changes to dryland rainfall results in rapid moss mortality and altered fertility in a dryland ecosystem. Nature Climate Change 2:752-755.

Wood, TE, MA Cavaleri, SC Reed (2012) Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes. Biological Reviews 87: 912-927.

Reed, SC, T Wood, M Cavaleri (2012) Tropical forests in a warming world. New Phytologist 193: 27-29.

¥Wertin, TM, SL Phillips, SC Reed, J Belnap (2012) Elevated CO2 did not mitigate the effect of a short-term drought on biological soil crusts. Biology & Fertility of Soils 48: 797-805.

¢Smith, WK, CC Cleveland, SC Reed, NL Miller, SW Running (2012) Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations and existing productivity. Environmental Science & Technology 46: 3536-3544.


Reed, SC, CC Cleveland, AR Townsend (2011). Functional ecology of free-living nitrogen fixation: a contemporary review. Annual Review for Ecology and Systematics 42: 489-512.

Reed, SC, PM Vitousek, CC Cleveland (2011) Are patterns in nutrient limitation belowground consistent with those aboveground: Results from a 4 million year chronosequence. Biogeochemistry 106: 323-336.

Cleveland, CC, AR Townsend, P Taylor, MMC Bustamante, G Chuyong, P Grierson, K Harms, B Houlton, A Marklein, W Parton, S Porder, SC Reed, et al. (2011) Relationships among net primary productivity, nutrients and climate in tropical rain forests: A pan-tropical analysis. Ecology Letters 14: 939-947.

Schmidt SK, CC Cleveland, DR Nemergut, SC Reed, AJ King, P Sowell (2011) Estimating phosphorus availability for microbial growth in an emerging landscape. Geoderma 163: 135-140.

Wickings, K, AS Grandy, SC Reed, CC Cleveland (2011) Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways. Biogeochemistry 104: 365-379.

Reed, SC, AR Townsend, PG Taylor, CC Cleveland. (2011) Phosphorus Cycling in Tropical Forests Growing on Highly-Weathered Soils. In: (Buneman EK, A Oberson, E Forssard) Phosphorus In Action—Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling. Springer Publishing Co. vol. 26, pp. 339-369.


Cleveland, CC, WR Wieder, SC Reed, AR Townsend (2010) Experimental drought in a wet tropical forest increases soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere. Ecology 91: 2313-2323.

Reed, SC, CC Cleveland, DR Nemergut, SK Schmidt & AR Townsend (2010) Scaling from molecules to ecosystems: Exploring controls over free-living nitrogen fixation in terrestrial systems. VDM Publishers, Saarbrücken Germany.

Reed, SC, AR Townsend, CC Cleveland, DR Nemergut (2010) Microbial community shifts influence patterns in tropical forest nitrogen fixation. Oecologia 164: 521-531.

Cleveland, CC, BZ Houlton, C Neill, SC Reed, AR Townsend, YP Wang (2010) Using indirect methods to constrain symbiotic nitrogen fixation rates: A case study from an Amazonian rain forest. Biogeochemistry 99: 1-13.


Sattin SR, CC Cleveland, E Hood, SC Reed, AJ King, MS Robeson, NL Ascarrunz, DR Nemergut (2009) Functional shifts in perhumid, recently-deglaciated soils do not correlate with shifts in soil bacterial community composition. The Journal of Microbiology 47: 673-681.

Costello, EK, SRP Halloy, SC Reed, P Sowell, SK Schmidt (2009) Fumarole-supported islands of biodiversity within a hyper-arid, high-elevation landscape on Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, Andes. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 75: 735-747.

Freeman, KR, MY Pescador, SC Reed, EK Costello, MS Robeson, SK Schmidt (2009) Soil CO2 flux and photoautotrophic community composition in high-elevation, ‘barren’ soil. Environmental Microbiology 11: 674-686.


Schmidt, SK, SC Reed, DR Nemergut, AS Grandy, CC Cleveland, MN Weintraub, AW Hill, EK Costello, AF Meyer, AM Martin, JC Neff (2008) The earliest stages of primary succession in high-elevation (5000 meters above sea-level), recently deglaciated soils. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275: 2793-2802.

Reed, SC, CC Cleveland, AR Townsend (2008) Tree species control rates of free-living nitrogen fixation in a tropical rain forest. Ecology 89: 2924-2934.


Reed, SC, CC Cleveland, AR Townsend (2007) Controls over leaf litter and soil nitrogen fixation in two lowland tropical rain forests. Biotropica 39: 585-592.


Cleveland, CC, SC Reed, AR Townsend (2006) Nutrient regulation of organic matter decomposition in a tropical rain forest. Ecology 87: 492-503.


Bowker, MA, SC Reed, J Belnap, SL Phillips (2002) Temporal variation in community composition, pigmentation, and Fv/Fm in desert cyanobacterial soil crusts. Microbial Ecology 43: 13-25.


Reed, SC, GJ Capitosti, Z Zhu & DA Modarelli (2001) Photochemical generation and matrix-isolation detection of dimethylvinylidene. Journal of Organic Chemistry 66: 287-291.


Reed, SC, DA Modarelli (1996) Conformational effects on the excited state 1,2-hydrogen migration in alkyldiazomethanes. Tetrahedron Letters 37: 7209-7212.